What is carbohydrates and it’s classification?
Carbohydrates synthesis classification and uses :
Carbohydrates synthesis classification and uses are here in the article by the way you can clear your doubts, first we started with carbohydrates definition. Carbohydrates are defined as macromolecules of polyhydroxy aldehydes or Ketones. They have general formula Cn(H2O)n.
Synthesis of carbohydrates
Plants synthesizes carbohydrates by photosynthesis process from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight and green pigment chlorophyll.
6CO2+6H2O (sunlight) ——> C6H12O6+6O2
Classification of carbohydrates
The simplest sugars are monosachrides which cannot by hydrolyzed. They consist of 3 to 9 carbon atoms.
Classification of Monosaccharides :
They are classified according to the number of carbon atoms in their molecules as trioses, pentoses, hexoses and so on. Hexoses are the important Monosaccharides are like glucose and fructose.
Characteristics of Monosaccharides :
1. Monosaccharides are white crystalline solids.
2. They are soluble in water.
3. They have sweet taste.
4. They cannot be hydrolyzed.
5. They are reducing in nature, therefore, these are called reducing sugars.
On hydrolysis Oligosaccharides give 2 to 9 units of Monosaccharides
Classification of Oligosaccharides :
They are classified as disaccharides, trisaccharides, tetrasaccharids, etc., depending upon the number of units they produce on hydrolysis.
The most important Oligosaccharides are disaccharides like sucrose.
Sucrose on hydrolysis produces one unit of glucose and one unit of fructose.
C12H22O11+ H2O (Dil. HCL) ——-> C6H12O6 + C6H12O6
Characteristic of Oligosaccharides :
1. These carbohydrates are white crystalline solids.
2. They are easily soluble in water.
3. They are sweet in taste.
4. They may be reducing or non reducing.
Polysaccharides are macromolecular carbohydrates consisting of hundred to thousands of Monosaccharides.
Examples of Polysaccharides are starch and cellulose.
Characteristic of Polysaccharides :
1. They are amorphous solids.
2. They are tasteless.
3. They are insoluble in water.
4. They are non reducing in nature.
Uses of carbohydrates :
1. Provide energy :
Our body uses carbohydrates in the form of glucose. The muscles used Glucose that is the only form of carbohydrates that is used directly by muscles for energy.
It is important to note that brain needs glucose as an energy source.
2. Regulate sugar level :
They regulate the amount of sugar level in our body.
3. Provide essential nutrients :
They provide essential nutrients for bacteria in intestinal tract that helps in digestion.
4. Functioning properly :
Dietary fibre help to keep the bowel functioning properly.
5. Regulate blood pressure :
Fibre help in lowering of cholesterol level and regulate blood pressure.
6. Protect our muscles :
Carbohydrates protect our muscles from cramping.