How are compounds formed?
Compounds definition types and uses are listed below.Compounds are formed when two or more elements are chemically bonded fixed ratio by mass.
As a result of this combination, lose their own properties and produce new substances(compunds)that have entirely different properties. Compounds can not be broken down into their constituents by simple physical methods.
For example, carbon dioxide is formed when elements of carbon and oxygen combine chemically in a fixed ratio of 12:32 or 3:8 by mass.
Compounds are divided into two classes as ionic or covalent.
1.Ionic compoundsformation :
Ionic compounds do not exist in independent moleculer form. They form a three dimensional crystal lattice in which each ion is surrounded by oppositely charged ions. These oppositely charged ions attract each other very strongly as a result ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points.These compounds are denoted by formula units.e.g.NaCl,KBr,CuSO4.
2.Covalent compounds formation :
The covalent compounds mostly exist in moleculer form. A molecule represents a true covalent compound and it’s formula is called moleculer formula. e. g. H2O,HCL,H2SO4,CH4.
Some common compounds formation and their formulas.
Compound chemical formula
Sodium chloride NaCl
Silicon dioxide(sand) SiO2
Sodium hydroxide NaOH
Sodium carbonate Na2CO3.10H2O
Calcium oxide CaO
Calcium carbonate CaCO3
Sulphuric acid H2SO4
Properties of ionic compounds;
The ionic compounds have following properties;
- they are mostly crystalline solids.
- In solid state they have negligible electricle conductance.
- They have high melting and boiling points.for exampie Nacl has melting point 800 C And a boiling point 1413C
- They dissolve easily in polar solvents like water
Properties of covalent compounds;
They have following properties;
- They have low melting and boiling points.
- They are bad conducters of electricity.
- They are insoluble in water but are soluble in non aqueous solvents like benzene,ether,alcohol and acetone.
Large molecules with three dimentional bonding form covalent crystals which are very stable and hard.they have very high melting and boiling points.
Applications of ionic compounds;
Uses of sulphuric acid;H2SO4
- It is used in industries for manufacturing of fertilizers.
- It is used for making detergengts.
- It is also used in ppharmasuitical labs for varoius tests.
- It is used in manufacturing of synthetic resins.
- It is used for production of insecticides.
Uses of megnesium hydroxide;Mg(OH)2
- It is used for reducing the acidity of stomach by neutralization reaction.
- It ised as a lexative ,because it is absorbed slowly from itestinal passage that is why it drains water from the sourrounding through osmosis.
Uses of potasium nitrate;KNO3
- It is used in fertilizer industry as a source of nitrogen.
- It is used in preserving the food for long time.
- It is used in fireworks and major component of gunpowder acting as an oxidising agent.
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