Importance of Biochemistry

What do you know about germs and their types?

Discovery of germs?

What do you know about germs and their types?

Germs definition discovery and types :

Germs definition discovery and types and their transmission of diseases is listed here.There is a special type of organisms that person can not be seen by the naked eye, called micro – organisms that are the germs of the most important types.

Germs :

Germs can be defined as a type of single-celled microorganism, and these organisms live in the form of rosaries, knots, clusters, or cocci.

Discovery of germs:

These microorganisms were discovered for the first time in the seventeenth century AD by the Dutch scientist Van Lovenhoek who invented the microscope, and through which he was able to preview them.

And then various scientific researches continued up to the nineteenth century so that scientists can form a clear picture of these living organisms, And its role in the transmission of many diseases to the human body.

The name of these organisms is usually associated with causing harm to humans by causing many different diseases, as they settle inside the body in different places such as the respiratory system , the reproductive system, and the digestive system, in addition to their presence on the surface of the bodies of other living organisms.

Spreading of germs :

These organisms are spread all over the earth, and they are distinguished by their high ability to tolerate weather conditions and high or low temperatures, where some types live in the frozen poles, and some live near the craters of volcanoes where temperatures rise dramatically, and they can also live in Deep ground depths.

Locations of germs :

A person must warn about the locations of germs, and constantly clean surfaces and sterilize the body and hands so that they do not pass into and cause disease, and the most prominent areas that contain these microorganisms are open spaces, toilets, desktops, various electronic devices, and air flying , And toothbrush.

Diseases caused by germs:

In spite of the many damages and diseases caused by these living organisms, some of them are useful and do not cause any harm, and bacterial diseases are transmitted through the transmission of germs to the body through eating exposed food, or by contacting surfaces containing these living organisms.

The most important of these diseases include:

1.Infections of all kinds

2.Gastrointestinal diseases

3.Respiratory system diseases.

4.Blood poisoning disease.

5.Having a fever.


Types of germs:

As was previously talked, it is possible to divide the microbes in microbiology into different groups, each of which is distinguished by the presence of special characteristics and composition in them,

Studies of the world Pasteur in the eighteenth century indicated the importance of knowing more information about these microorganisms and studying their properties and characteristics,

[ 2] Among the most important types of germs and microorganisms are the following:


Germs definition discovery and types
Escherichia coli

Bacteria are among the most studied microorganisms in a long time, since since earlier in history,

Bacterial infection :

The theory of bacterial infection and the theory of fermentation have been proven, applied and emphasized on bacteria, and bacteria are classified in bacteriology as one of the eukaryotic microorganisms, that is, they It consists of a cell that contains a separate nucleus so that the genetic material is embraced within this nucleus, and bacteria of various types are formed of several forms, some of which are circular in shape, and some of them are bacillus, and some of them have a spiral like spiral germ.

Also, some types and types of bacteria are characterized by the presence of flagellators at the end of which they can move and move, and bacteria can be in the form of pairs, chains, quadruple pairs, or in the form of lumps. The cell, in addition to its internal parts.

[2] Viruses:

Germs definition discovery and types
Viruses structure

Viruses have special characteristics that distinguish them from other germs and microorganisms, as they are among the organisms that are classified on the dividing line between inanimate objects and living organisms,

Virology :

And virology has a special branch in microbiology and specializes only in it, and is considered to be on the boundary for this because Its inability to grow outside the cells, as it does not contain all the cellular componentsThat are contained in the rest of the microorganisms.

Viruses infection :

It is possible for viruses to infect both humans, animals, plants, and other microorganisms. The viruses mainly consist of a genetic material – which is called DNA – surrounded by a cellular envelope only, and the viruses do not contain any components or Other cellular parts.

As a result of this distinct structure, viruses cannot be seen in the normal microscope.

Rather, an electron microscope must be used to determine its properties and shape. Viruses are called mandatory parasites because they are unable to divide alone separately, as they need a cell for an object.

Another neighborhood until the knowledge of the division of this cell and the division of the virus with it, and that the genetic material of the virus merges with the other genetic material of the cell infected with the virus, and therefore any division of this cell will naturally lead to the division of the virus and the multiplication of the number of cells in a large and massive manner.

[3] Fungi:

Germs definition discovery and types

Fungi are classified as one of the eukaryotic species of microorganisms, and are distinguished from other types of microorganisms by the fact that their size may range from an infinitesimal cell that cannot be seen in the naked eye to large and massive fungi such as mushrooms , although there are huge differences and differences between the types of fungi

However, they are all characterized by the sharing of the basic unified qualities among themselves, such as their containment of a solid external wall of cells, in addition to their need to absorb nutrients from the surrounding environment in which they grow, and examples of nanoparticles are mold.

As mold grows as a result of the presence of spores on a suitable environment for this.

In addition to the presence of the basic nutrients that need to grow mixed with moisture and a percentage of water, and when it grows fine strands grow in the form of a group of cells together, while others grow from these fungi in the form of Single cells grow and multiply individually.Examples of this type are yeast.

[4] Primitives:

Germs definition discovery and types

The protozoa are eukaryotic microorganisms that live in a unicellular form and do not grow in the form of a group of cells, and their shape ranges from circular to elliptical to longitudinal, and may range in size from small organisms that do not see with the naked eye to small objects in size but they are It can be seen without the need to zoom in,

And the primitives lack a cell wall for them, that is, they contain only a cell membrane in addition to the presence of other internal parts that are quite similar to the components of the animal cell, and what distinguishes the primitives is that they do not urgently need the presence of a host organism.

Here living doing so because they have the ability to do photosynthesis process and composition of the food itself is similar to the plants in it too, and examples of priorities is the amoebas that cause human infection and shoot him, leading to the emergence of symptoms related to the digestive system.

The affected person, and the primacy is also characterized by its widespread in various environments.

[5] Helminths:


The worms parasitic one of the types of micro – organisms that work on the attack on the bodies of various objects and live within these objects, leading to damage to health problems and various symptoms depend on the nature of the worms and the type of organism that hit by a mismatch may cause simple symptoms, including What may be fatal at times, and a person is one of these different living organisms

These worms may infect and live in their bodies, and classify the parasitic worms as living organisms whose body does not contain the spine and are called invertebrates.

And it is characterized by a different set of shapes, including those worms whose body is characterized by being circular in shape, including those that are flat body and shape, as well as their length and varies from one type to another as there are some types of short length and some are very long, and these parasites are studied to know their properties.

And its actions within the bodies of organisms, as knowledge of the genetic material contained within its bodies may greatly help in identifying its vital properties and the damages it may cause on various organisms.

Methods of transmission:

Infection with any bacteria may lead to various symptoms occurring on the affected person, as these symptoms may include high fever, feeling pain in the body and joints, coughs and symptoms of respiratory infections, symptoms of inflammation and a digestive disorder such as nausea, Vomiting, diarrhea, and the nature of these symptoms depend on the type of organism that caused the infection on the immune system of the affected person.

There are some microorganisms that specialize in infecting a specific organ in the body and do not affect other organs of the body, and it is important to know the ways of transmission and spread of infection .

Among the most important ways to transmit germs and microorganisms are the following:

[1] Direct connection:

Germs can transmit and cause infection in some cases through direct contact with a person who has this infection, for example, peace with the hand with an infected person, or kissing may lead to transmission, and touching or friction with any types of fluids and secretions in the body with a person who has.

Transmission Of infections:

Transmission of these types of infection, and examples of these fluids that may cause transmission and carry the infection are blood, saliva, nasal and respiratory secretions, secretions of the reproductive system of both male and female, such as vaginal secretions or semen, and some types of germs and infection can also be transmitted.


This microorganism may pass through the placental microorganisms that connect the pregnant mother to the fetus, which may cause the fetus to become infected with this infection. This method of infection is rare, but it may nevertheless cause serious types of infection .

[2] Indirect contact:

Sometimes infection and germs may be transmitted through contact indirectly, that is, it is not required to come into contact with the affected person or with the secretions of his body.

Rather, it is possible that this is done by exposure to a surface or non-living material that carries this microorganism and thus this causes.

Spreading infection and germs, and this method is called communication and indirect spreading.

One of the most important methods of indirect spreading is as follows:

[1] Eating contaminated foods or drinks:

As it is possible for a person to eat one of the contaminated food types that carry these germs, this may happen when preparing and preparing food in a contaminated and unclean environment, as this transfer may occur as a result of eating meat or foods that have not been cooked.

Also well, which may lead to allowing some types of germs and microorganisms to stay alive and move to the human body and infection, as it is important to know that contaminated and unsterilized water may carry some types of germs and microorganisms, and sometimes eating.

Yep it is sterile and non – boiled and pasteurized to the survival of some species live bacteria by causing infections to occur as well.

[2]Through infected animals or insects:

Human interaction with some types of infected animals and their exposure to them may cause the transmission of some types of infection from the animal to the human.

For example, biting a dog with rabies for a healthy person may cause this microorganism to transmit to a person and cause a human disease .

Another example of this is the infection with toxoplasm, also called cat germs, where contact with a infected cat or with equipment used to care for an infected cat leads to this infection and infection with this type of parasite and the appearance of the dog.

Satisfied with the accompanying him, but for the insects that can transmit infections are ticks, lice and mosquitoes, and examples of the types of sexually transmitted infections in this way is malaria .

Ways to prevent infection:

In general, infection with some types of infection may cause serious symptoms to human health, especially when exposed to people who are not fully healthy and a good health status of this infection such as people who already suffer from cardiovascular disease, immune diseases, and people who take medicines that may cause .

In affecting the immune system negatively and may weaken it, because the body’s natural resistance to germs in these cases may weaken,so it is important to know ways to prevent infection and its transmission, and as it is said that a prevention dirham is better than a pound of treatment, so there will be talk about ways

A Prevention that can be followed to reduce the possibility of infection with different types of microbes and microorganisms and thus help in combating the spread and transmission of infection:

Knowing and understanding the methods of transmission:

This is because a good understanding and understanding of the possible ways of transmission can enable a person to avoid these methods and not expose himself to them.

Here are some methods which are as follows :

[1]Maintaining personal hygiene:

This is an important cornerstone in preventing transmission, because keeping the hands clean and washing them, covering the mouth with a handkerchief or on top of the arm while coughing, sterilizing and washing the wounds and scratches to which the skin is exposed, not sharing personal tools and food items in between People, may contribute significantly to reducing the spread of infection.

[2]Follow proper methods of cooking:

As well as adding to the proper cooking of foods, following the correct methods of cleaning and disinfection during the preparation and preparation of food significantly reduce the spread of infections that may be transmitted through foods.

[3]Use of vaccines:

vaccines are one of the most effective ways to prevent infection, as each type of bacterium has a vaccine different from the other type.

[4]Follow safety procedures during travel:

such as taking additional vaccines before traveling for a specified period, and eating only packaged foods while traveling.

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