Human Blood colour and types :where does the colour of blood come from?
The chemistry behind the colour of human blood and types we may all be familiar with.
Most of us know that blood contains haemoglobin (haemoglobin). This protein, which is contained within red blood cells, enables our blood to transfer oxygen to cells.
It also helps transfer some carbon dioxide to the lungs, in the form of carbamino hemoglobin (hemoglobin with co2), although the vast majority of carbon dioxide is carried in the blood in the form of bicarbonate ions.
The red colour of human blood :
The red colour of human blood is due to partial units of hemoglobin. Each of the four subunits is made up of a protein chain bound to the heme group.
These heme groups, which contain restricted iron atoms, cause a dark red blood color.
Its structure consists of single and double bonds that absorb light from certain waves, which causes our vision of them in red.
Red is not the only possible blood colour, some animals can have green, blue, and even purple blood, due to the use of various oxygen-carrying proteins.
A common misconception is that the oxygenated blood (i.e. that flows back from cells through the veins) is blue.
Veins appear in blue when viewed through the skin, so it is quite understandable why people think so.
Also, in biology books, the veins are colored blue when drawing vascular patterns.
While oxygenated haemoglobin is bright red, non-oxygenated hemoglobin is dark dark red, but not blue.
The reason blood appears in blue when we look at the veins through the skin is the interaction of light with both the blood and the skin covering the blood vessels.
Red light can penetrate our tissues more deeply than blue light, and since oxygenated blood absorbs red light higher than oxygenated blood, our veins tend to look blue as a result.
Hemoglobin can help us explain the change in blood color when removed from the body.
If you ever had nosebleeds, you may have noticed when you stopped it with a handkerchief how the blood turns dark brown when it dries up.
This is due to the oxidation of iron atoms in the partial units of hemoglobin, which produces dark brown methemoglobin.
What is the taste of human blood?
If you happen to accidentally get some of your tongue, you may have noticed that the blood has a somewhat metallic taste.
This is partly due to the presence of iron in hemoglobin. It can also interact with protein molecules to produce a group of compounds that help give the mineral taste.
The vehicles created include oct-1-en-3-one, which describes the smell of the metal. This compound is the same as responsible for the smell of the mineral that you reveal on your skin after touching mineral objects, even in these cases it is not the metal that you smell, but the chemical products of the molecules in your skin.
The researchers determined the presence of a specific compound in the blood that contributes to this mineral smell, trans-4,5-epoxy- (E) -2-decenal, which is also an important compound that predators detect.
Human blood types
Although all of our blood is colored by haemoglobin, and blood from different people produces the same mineral smell, there are still differences in blood from one person to another.
We refer in general to these differences with blood types. In fact there are many different blood types (35 types have been recognized by the International Blood Transfusion Association) but there are two basic categories that we usually refer to.
ABO blood system :
The first classification is the ABO system. Where a person can have blood from A, B, AB, or O.
This classification is determined by the presence of antibodies, which are structures found on the surface of red blood cells.
They are either sugars or proteins, and types of antibodies present in a person’s blood determine their blood type.
- Type A has antibodies A in its blood.
- Type B has antibodies B.
- Type AB has antibodies of both types A and B
- Type O does not have any antibodies.
Antibodies are neglected by our immune system.
However, during a blood transfusion, if the blood transfused to us contains an antibody that is not present in our blood, this will result in a negative reaction by our immune system.
Our blood also contains antibodies.
These proteins in the blood plasma help fight infection.
In most transfusions, red blood cells alone transfer from donor blood to recipient.
If these cells contain antibodies bound to the antibodies in the recipient’s blood, then the antibodies will bind to the antibodies, a negative reaction will occur.
For this reason, people with some types of groups can only receive blood from other types.
Generic giver group O :
Blood from group O is known as a generic giver, because red blood cells do not contain opposites A and B, so it can safely give blood to the receiver from any group.
AB group is public :
Similarly, the blood from the AB group is considered public, due to the presence of antibodies A or B, so there is no reaction that can occur whether the blood contains the A or B antibodies.
RH antibodies :
The blood type can also be classified as positive or negative.
This indicates the presence or absence of RH antibodies in the red blood cells, which is something to consider when transfusion of blood.
Blood containing RH, that is, positive, cannot be transferred to a receptor with negative blood, that is, not containing RH. The receptor can also develop RH antibodies that can then attack donor blood.
People with positive blood can receive blood, either positive or negative.
In conclusion, the fake blood used in Halloween does not have much in common with real blood.
The blood color usually comes from red food dyes, and some globin is added by adding sugar syrup.
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