Polymers types polymerization and uses
Polymers types polymerization and uses are listed here.Polymers are materials made of long, repetitive chains of molecules. And these substances have unique properties, depending on the type and how they are interconnected.
Some polymers bend and stretch, such as rubber and polyester. Others are hard and sturdy, such as glass and epoxies.
They are found in almost every aspect of modern life. Humans handle and use products in which polymers are present, from water bottles to tires and tools.
Types of polymers :
1.synthetic polymer :
The term polymer is often used to describe plastic products that are originally synthetic polymers.
Natural polymers :
However, there are also natural polymers. Rubber and wood are examples of natural polymers, consisting of a simple hydrocarbon and an isoprene.
Proteins are natural polymers that consist of amino acids and nucleic acids, and these acids are originally polymers of nucleotides, which are complex molecules consisting of bases containing nitrogen, sugars and phosphoric acid are one of their examples.
Hermann Staudinger, Professor of Organic Chemistry at Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (University of Applied Sciences) in Zurich, is considered the spiritual father in the development of modern polymers.And his research in the 1920s led to the possibility of manipulation of natural and synthetic polymers.
He developed two concepts that are key to understanding polymers: polymerization and macromolecules, according to the American Chemistry Society. In 1953, Hermann was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his research and discoveries in “The Field of Molecular Chemistry”.
Polymerization is a method for creating industrial polymers by combining small molecules, called monomers, that come together in a chain with covalent bonds. The chemical reactions caused by heat differ from heat and pressure, and they change the chemical bonds that bind the monomers together.
This process causes the molecules to be bonded in a linear, branched, or mesh structure, resulting in the formation of polymers.
This series of monomers is called molecules. And most polymer chains have a chain of carbon atoms that represent the backbone of it. One part can consist of thousands of monomers.
They are used in all areas of our daily life. Shopping bags, soda, water bottles, textile fibers, phones, computers, food wrappers, auto parts and toys all contain polymers.
Some advanced technology uses:
polymers, for example: “membranes for desalination, biopolymers used in tissue engineering.”
The most used polymers contain polyethylene and polypropylene. Its molecules consist of about 10,000 to 200,000 monomers.
The future of polymers:
Researchers are developing and experimenting with new and different types of polymers, with the aim of further developing drugs and enhancing products that are used daily. For example, the use of carbon polymers in the automotive industry is being developed and strengthened.
“Carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer compounds – also called carbon fiber strips – are next-generation materials to make cars lighter, more fuel efficient and safer.
Carbon sheets are extremely strong and solid because of their woven layers of pure carbon fibers mixed with a hard plastic compound, ”according to a study by two researchers: Nikhil Gupta and Stephen Zeltman, at the Composite Materials Mechanics Laboratory at the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at New York Tandon University.
Polymer is also used to improve the hologram. Scientists at the University of Pennsylvania created a three-dimensional image of the flexible polymer material that was an integral part of gold nanoparticles, according to a study published online in early 2017 in the journal (Nano Letters). The new hologram can take several pictures instead of just one.
Ritesh Aggarwal, researcher and professor of materials science and engineering at the University of Pennsylvania asks a question, “Can we encode many of the information in a three-dimensional image? “.
“It is an important piece of work, because it is the first time that someone appears that you can record multidimensional 3D images, and by stretching the polymers, you can change the whole image.”
Artificial leather made of silicone polymer may be the anti-aging receptor.And it Comes in the form of a cream, this polymer may be able to tighten the skin, reduce the appearance of wrinkles, and reduce bags under the eye.
This faux leather can also be used to help those who suffer from certain skin conditions, such as eczema, or it may be used for sun protection.
“We’re excited about that, it’s a whole new substance,” says researcher involved in the study of polymers (Robert Langer), a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
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