Inorganic chemistry

118 elements and their symbols

118 elements and their characteristics

118 elements and their symbols in periodic table

118 elements and their symbols

118 elements and their symbols were discovered now.

When we study about elements we come to know that elements were discovered and arranged in the form of a table by Mendleeve.

He arranged the elements according to their increasing atomic masses. And this is the first attempt to arrange the elements.

Later on this attempt has been rejected and the elements again arranged by another scientists Mosely.

He arranged the elements according to increasing their atomic number. And now a days this arrangement is used.

The periodic table consist of 7periods and 18 groups.

Periods are the horizontal lines in the periodic table from left to right .

While groups are the vertical columns in the periodic table.

118 elements and their symbols

Name of the Element Symbol of the Element Atomic Number
Hydrogen H 1
Helium He 2
Lithium Li 3
Beryllium Be 4
Boron B 5
Carbon C 6
Nitrogen N 7
Oxygen O 8
Fluorine F 9
Neon Ne 10
Sodium Na 11
Magnesium Mg 12
Aluminium Al 13
Silicon Si 14
Phosphorus P 15
Sulfur S 16
Chlorine Cl 17
Argon Ar 18
Potassium K 19
Calcium Ca 20
Scandium Sc 21
Titanium Ti 22
Vanadium V 23
Chromium Cr 24
Manganese Mn 25
Iron Fe 26
Cobalt Co 27
Nickel Ni 28
Copper Cu 29
Zinc Zn 30
Gallium Ga 31
Germanium Ge 32
Arsenic As 33
Selenium Se 34
Bromine Br 35
Krypton Kr 36
Rubidium Rb 37
Strontium Sr 38
Yttrium Y 39
Zirconium Zr 40
Niobium Nb 41
Molybdenum Mo 42
Technetium Tc 43
Ruthenium Ru 44
Rhodium Rh 45
Palladium Pd 46
Silver Ag 47
Cadmium Cd 48
Indium In 49
Tin Sn 50
Antimony Sb 51
Tellurium Te 52
Iodine I 53
Xenon Xe 54
Cesium Cs 55
Barium Ba 56
Lanthanum La 57
Cerium Ce 58
Praseodymium Pr 59
Neodymium Nd 60
Promethium Pm 61
Samarium Sm 62
Europium Eu 63
Gadolinium Gd 64
Terbium Tb 65
Dysprosium Dy 66
Holmium Ho 67
Erbium Er 68
Thulium Tm 69
Ytterbium Yb 70
Lutetium Lu 71
Hafnium Hf 72
Tantalum Ta 73
Tungsten W 74
Rhenium Re 75
Osmium Os 76
Iridium Ir 77
Platinum Pt 78
Gold Au 79
Mercury Hg 80
Thallium Tl 81
Lead Pb 82
Bismuth Bi 83
Polonium Po 84
Astatine At 85
Radon Rn 86
Francium Fr 87
Radium Ra 88
Actinium Ac 89
Thorium Th 90
Protactinium Pa 91
Uranium U 92
Neptunium Np 93
Plutonium Pu 94
Americium Am 95
Curium Cm 96
Berkelium Bk 97
Californium Cf 98
Einsteinium Es 99
Fermium Fm 100
Mendelevium Md 101
Nobelium No 102
Lawrencium Lr 103
Rutherfordium Rf 104
Dubnium Db 105
Seaborgium Sg 106
Bohrium Bh 107
Hassium Hs 108
Meitnerium Mt 109
Darmstadtium Ds 110
Roentgenium Rg 111
Copernicium Cn 112
Nihonium Nh 113
Flerovium Fl 114
Moscovium Mc 115
Livermorium Lv 116
Tennessine Ts 117
Oganesson Og 118

Definition of elements

We can say that every thing around us is composed of elements. Our universe is also composed of many types of elements. Elements is simply defined as,

It is a substance that is made from same type of atoms,  which have same atomic number and it cannot be broken down into simple substances with the help of chemical sources .


Oxygen, silver, hydrogen, nitrogen, argon etc.

An element is a substance formed by the same type of atoms. It cannot break down into another simpler substance. Everything in the universe contains atoms of one or more elements.

The number of electrons in the atom of a element can vary.

Early concept of Element

In the early ages, only nine elements were known as :

Carbon, Gold, silver, Tin, Mercury, Lead  Copper, Iron and Sulphur.

In ancient  time, it was considered that were the substance that could not be broken down into simpler units by ordinary chemical process. Until the end of nineteenth century sixty three elements had been discovered.

Now, 118 elements have been discovered,  out of which 92 are naturally occurring elements.The discovery of elements is not over. And new elements are discovering with the passing days. And there is large space in periodic table to accommodate these new elements.

Properties of Elements

Some typical properties of elements are as follows :

1. Elements occur in nature in free and combined form.

2. Elements may be solids, liquids or gases.

3. Each element is made up of unique and pure type of atoms.

4. All atoms have very specific properties.

5. Elements cannot be broken down by various chemical means into two or more different simpler substances.

  • Majority of elements exist in solid state e.g , sodium, copper, zinc and gold etc.
  • There are few elements which occur in liquid state e.g mercury and bromine.
  • A very few elements exist as gases e.g nitrogen, oxygen, chlorine and hydrogen.

6. All naturally occurring elements found in the world have different percentage in the Earth’s crust, oceans and atmosphere.

7. The elements are represented by “Symbols” which are abbreviation for the name of elements.

Note: (A symbol is taken from the name of that element in English,  Latin, Greek or German)

In case of one letter symbol :

Symbol of hydrogen is “H” symbol of carbon is “C”

And In case of two letter symbol :

Symbol of calcium “Ca”

Symbol of sodium “Na”

8. The unique property of an element is “Valency” . It is combining capacity of an element with other elements. It depends on the number of electrons in the outermost shell.

Classification of elements

On the behalf of the properties we can divide the elements as :

  • Metals
  • Non metals
  • Metalloids


An element which is good conductor of heat and electricity,  malleable and ductile and has a shiny surface is called a metal.

Examples :

Sodium, silver, Iron etc.


An element which is a bad conductor of heat and electricity and  not malleable and not ductile and not shiny in nature is called a non-metal.

Examples :

Hydrogen, chlorine (gas)

Bromine (liquid)

Carbon, sulphur (solid)


An element which have properties of both metals and non-metals is called a metalloid.

Examples :

Antimony (Sb), Silicon (So), Boron (B).

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