12 dangerous viruses on earth?
12 dangerous viruses:
Scientists were introduced to the Marburg virus in 1927, when small outbreaks of the virus broke out among laboratory workers in Germany who were exposed to infected Ugandan monkeys.
Marburg virus is similar to the Ebola virus in that both cause hemorrhagic fever; That is, they develop high fever and bleeding throughout the body, which may lead to shock, failure of human systems and death.
According to the World Health Organization, the death rate in the first outbreak was 25%, but it was more than 80% in the 1998-2000 outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, as well as in the 2005 outbreak in Angola.
The first known outbreaks of the Ebola virus among humans occurred simultaneously in the Republic of the Sudan and the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1976.
The Ebola virus is transmitted through contact with blood, other body fluids, tissues, or infected animals. Ebola virus expert Elkie Mulberger and assistant professor of microbiology at Boston University told Life Science that known strains vary widely in their lethality.
According to the World Health Organization, one of the strains, Ebola Reston, did not even make people sick. But the mortality rate is up to 50% in the Bendbyogyo strain and up to 71% in the Sudan strain. The current outbreak in West Africa that began in 2014 is the largest and most complex to date.
The rabies vaccines – introduced to the world in the 1920s – helped make the disease very rare in the developed world, but the condition remains a serious problem in India and parts of Africa.
“It destroys the brain, it is really a very bad disease,” Mullberger said. “We have a rabies vaccine, and we have antibodies that work to eliminate rabies, so if a person is bitten by a rabid animal, we can treat it.”
Despite this, she says, “If you don’t get treatment, there is a 100% chance you will die.”
4.Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV):
AIDS is perhaps the deadliest and most brutal virus in the modern world. “He’s still the greatest killer,” said Dr. Amish Adalja, an infectious disease physician and spokesperson for the Infectious Diseases Association of America.
An estimated 32 million people have died from HIV since the disease was first recognized in the early 1980s. “The AIDS virus is the most infectious disease that causes human losses at the present time,” Adalja says.
Antivirals helped humans live for years with HIV. But the disease continues to have a devastating effect in many low- and middle-income countries, where 95% of new HIV infections occur. About 1 in 25 adults in the WHO African region are infected with HIV, representing more than two-thirds of people living with HIV around the world.
In 1980 the World Health Organization declared the world free of smallpox. But before that, humanity had fought smallpox for thousands of years, and the disease killed about one in three infected people. Survivors had deep, permanent scars and often blindness.
The death rate was much higher in peoples outside of Europe; People had little contact with the virus before visitors transmitted it to their areas. For example, historians estimate that 90% of the indigenous population of America died from smallpox transmitted to them from European explorers. Smallpox killed about 300 million people in the twentieth century alone.
“He caused a great burden on the planet, not only from death but also from blindness, which prompted a campaign to rid the Earth of it,” Adalja says.
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome initially received widespread attention in the United States in 1993, when a young man and his fiancée, who lived in Four Corners in the United States, died days after complications in shortness of breath.
A few months later, health authorities extracted the hantavirus from a deer mouse – a type of rodent known as a deer mouse – that lives in the home of an infected person. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, so far more than 600 people in the United States have had hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, and about 36% have died from the disease.
The virus is not transmitted from person to person, but people contract the disease through exposure to the droppings of infected mice.
According to research published in 2010 in the Clinical Microbiology Review, another hantavirus caused an outbreak in the early 1950s during the Korean War. More than 3,000 soldiers were infected with the infection and nearly 12% of them died.
While the virus was new to Western medicine when it was discovered in the United States, researchers later realized that Nagago Medical District cases showed a similar disease, and they linked the cause of the disease to mice.
According to the World Health Organization, approximately 500,000 people around the world die due to disease flare-ups during the usual flu season. But when a new flu strain emerges, it results in epidemics with faster spread and often higher mortality rates.
The largest deadly influenza pandemic began in 1918 – sometimes called the Spanish flu – and has made about 40% of the world’s population sick and killed nearly 50 million people.
“I think there is a possibility that something like 1918 flu will happen again,” Mullberger says. “If a new strain of influenza can infect humans and be able to move between them easily and cause severe symptoms, then we will have a big problem.”
The dengue virus first appeared in the 1950s in the Philippines and Thailand, and since then it has spread to all tropical and subtropical regions of the world. About 40% of the world’s population lives in areas where dengue fever is endemic, and the disease is likely to spread to farther regions as the world warms, along with the mosquitoes that carry the disease.
According to the World Health Organization, 50 to 100 million people become sick with dengue fever every year. Although the death rate of dengue fever is lower than some other viruses – by 25% – the virus can cause a disease similar to Ebola called: dengue hemorrhagic fever, and this case has a death rate of 20% if left untreated. “We really need to think about the dengue virus more because it is such a real threat to us,” Mullberger said.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the United States Food and Drug Administration approved the production of a dengue vaccine in 2019 for use on children between the ages of 9 and 16 years, who live in areas where dengue is common and have a proven history of infection and infection with the virus.
There is a vaccine approved in some countries for those between the ages of 9 to 45 years old, but once again we caution that the recipients of the vaccine must have a prior history of a confirmed case of dengue fever. Because if the vaccine is given to those who have not previously contracted the virus, that puts them at risk of developing severe dengue fever.
Two vaccines are now available to protect children from rotavirus, which is the leading cause of severe diarrhea among infants and young children.
The virus can spread rapidly through what researchers call the oral-anal route “which means that small particles of feces are consumed orally.”
Although children in the developed world rarely die from rotavirus infection, the disease is fatal in the developing world where rehydration treatments are not sufficiently available.
World Health Organization statistics show that 453,000 children under the age of five died from rotavirus infection in 2008. However, countries that introduced the vaccine have reported sharp declines in hospitalizations and deaths from rotavirus.
According to the World Health Organization, the virus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome – or SARS – first appeared in 2002 in Guangdong Province, southern China. It is possible that the virus first appeared in bats, and then spread to nocturnal mammals called civets before the infection eventually spread to humans. After the first outbreak broke out in China, SARS spread to 26 countries around the world, transmitting the infection to more than 8,000 people and killing more than 770 over a two-year period.
The disease causes fever, chills, and body aches. It often develops into pneumonia, which is a severe condition in which the lungs become inflamed and filled with pus and pus. The SARS mortality rate is estimated at 9.6%, and yet it has no approved treatment or vaccine. However, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, no new SARS cases have been reported since the early 2000s.
SARS-Cove-2 belongs to the same large family of viruses as SARS-Cove, known as corona viruses, and it was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. The virus mostly originated in bats – such as SARS-Cove – and was transmitted through intermediate animals before infecting humans.
Since its emergence, the virus has infected tens of thousands of people in China and hundreds of thousands of others around the world. This outbreak caused a comprehensive quarantine in Wuhan and its neighboring cities, and placed restrictions on travel from or to the affected countries, and the pandemic also caused a major global effort to develop the science of diagnosing the disease, treatments and vaccines.
The death rate for SARS-Cove-2, known as COVID-19, is estimated at 2.3%. It appears that the elderly and those with underlying health conditions are most at risk of developing severe complications and severe symptoms of the disease. Common symptoms include: fever, dry cough and shortness of breath. In severe cases, the disease progresses to pneumonia.
The outbreak of the virus that causes respiratory syndrome in the Middle East – or MERS – broke out in Saudi Arabia in 2012 and again in South Korea in 2015.
MERS virus belongs to the same family as SARS-Cove and SARS-Cove-2, and it is possible that it first originated in bats as well. The disease affected camels before spreading to humans, causing fevers, coughing and shortness of breath for the infected. MERS often develops into severe pneumonia, and the mortality rate is estimated between 30% to 40%, which makes it the most deadly corona virus known to have spread from animals to humans. As with SARS-Cove and SARS-Cove-2, MERS has no cure or approved vaccine.
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