Environmental Chemistry

What is Acid Rain and how it is formed?

Acid Rain causes?

What is acid rain and how it is formed?

Acid rain definition :

Acid rain definition is that it is formed by the burning of fossil fuels in the air converts the sulfur and nitrogen present in the air to sulfuric acid and nitric acid

History of acid rain:

If we look in history the acid rain was discovered in 1857.The word acid rain was given by Robert Angeus Smith.

Acid rain around the world:

In various countries of the world acid rain reduces the pH range from normal pH range due to which the rain becomes more acidic.

For example ;In Hong Kong due to acid rain the average pH 4.4 goes down to 3.1 and is not improving much this is a global issue.

Acid Rain:acid rain

Acid rain is formed on dissolving acidic air pollutants such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide by rain water.

We know that burning of fossil fuels produce oxides of sulphur and nitrogen in air.  Rain water converts SO2 into H2So4 and NO to HNo2 and HNo3.

pH ranges:

Normal rain water is weakly acidic because it consist of dissolved Co2 of the air. It’s pH is about 5.6 to 6. But rain water on dissolving air pollutants becomes more acidic and it’s pH reduce to 4. So acid rain is formed.

Effects of Acid Rain :

1. Suffocation cause death of fish:

Acid rain on soil rocks leaches heavy metal (Al, Hg, Pb, Cr etc)  with it and discharge these metal into rivers and lakes.  This water is used by human beings for drinking purpose. In human body these metals accumulate to a toxic level. On the other hand,  aquatic life present in lakes also suffer because of high concentration of these metals.The high concentration of aluminium ions clogs the fish gills.  It cause suffocation and ultimately death of fish.

2. Effects on building :taj mehal

Acid rain attacks the calcium carbonate present in the marble and limestone of buildings and monuments e.g Taj mehal in india is getting dull day by day due to acid rain. Due to why these buildings getting dull and ended day by day.

Acidity of the Soil :

Acid rain change the composition of soil. As normal range of pH is 6.5. But acid rain change its pH.

Acid rain increase the acidity of the soil.  In such soil Many crops and plants cannot grow properly . It also increase the toxic metals in the soil that poisons the vegetation.  Even old trees are being affected due to acidity of soil. Their growth is retarded. They get dry and die.

4. Effect on leaves of trees and plants :demaging of trees

Acid rain directly damages the leaves of trees and plants, thus limiting their growth.  Acid rain found very hard on trees. It weakens film on leaves.Depending upon the severity of the damage, plants growth can be hampered.  Plants capability to resist cold or disease reduces and ultimately die.

5.Effect on birds population and ecosystem

Due to acid rain the egg shell of birds remain thin and due to this they are not able to reproduce which effects their ecosystem and population rate.

Prevention from acid rain:

We can prevent from acid rain by taking following measures;

  1. By cleaning the chimnies and exhaust pipes of factories.
  2. we can prevent the acid rain if we reduce the factories.
  3. If we use alternate ways of energy then we can reduce the chances of acid rain.
  4. we can reduce the chancrs of acid rain by turning of our engine when it is at red light.

5.By reducing the concentration of acid utilization throughout the world we can prevent acid rain.

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