Arrhenius concept of acid and base:
Arrhenius concept of acid and base, named after Swedish physicist Svante August Arrhenius,
It states as:
An acid is a substance that increases the concentration of the hydronium ion (H3O+) in an aqueous solution.
A base is a substance that increases the hydroxide ion (OH−) concentration.
Examples of acids:
The well-known acids include hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), nitric acid (HNO3), and acetic acid (CH3COOH).
Examples of Bases:
The Bases includes such common substances as caustic soda (sodium hydroxide, NaOH) and slaked lime (calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2).
Another common base is ammonia (NH3), which reacts with water to give a basic solution according to the following balanced equation.
NH3(aq) + H2O(l) → NH4+(aq) + OH−(aq)
(This reaction occurs to a very little extent; the hydroxide ion concentration is small but measurable.)
A large number of natural bases are known, including morphine, cocaine, nicotine, and caffeine; many synthetic drugs are also bases.
All of these contain a nitrogen atom bonded to three other groups, and all behave similarly to ammonia in that they can react with water to give a solution containing the hydroxide ion.
The amino acids, a very important class of compounds, are able to function both as acids and as bases.
The Amino acid molecules contain both acidic (―COOH) and basic (―NH2) sites.
In the aqueous solution, amino acids exist in both the molecular form and the so-called “zwitterionic” form, H3N + CH2CO2−.
In this structure the nitrogen atom bears a positive charge, and the oxygen atom of the acid group bears a negative charge.
According to the Arrhenius theory, acid-base reactions involve the combination of the hydrogen ion (H+) and the hydroxide ion to form water.
An example is the reaction of aqueous solutions of sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid.HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) → NaCl(aq) + H2O (l)
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