In chemistry bases are any substances that undergoes ionic dissociation in aqueous solution, releasing the OH- (hydroxide) anion.
- 1 Features
- 2 Importance
- 3 Examples
- 3.1 Sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
- 3.2 Magnesium hydroxide (Mg (OH) 2)
- 3.3 Calcium hydroxide (Ca (OH) 2)
- 3.4 Ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH)
- 3.5 Potassium hydroxide (KOH)
Bases fractures in chemistry
- One of the characteristics of the bases is its astringent taste , which reduces salivation.
- Like acids, bases also conduct electrical current when dissolved in water. The phenolphthalein (solution) indicators and litmus paper also change color in the presence of hydroxides.
- It has a ph greater than 7.
- In aqueous medium, they conduct electricity well.
- When exposed to high temperatures they disintegrate.
- When combined with acids, they form salts . Example: NaCl (table salt).
- The colorless phenolphthalein turns red; Red litmus paper turns blue, therefore they are reverse reactions.
Bases importance in chemistry
They are important for the neutralization of acids , for example when it comes to heartburn, milk of magnesia is used precisely to neutralize the action of hydrochloric acid in our stomach.
They are used as cleaning products , medicines (antacids), among others.
Baking soda can be used as an antacid. But its very prolonged use can destroy the acid-basic balance of the stomach and can cause metabolic alkalosis.
Therefore, always consult a doctor before using any medication.
Bases Examples in chemistry
Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH)
Also known as caustic soda, this substance is used in the manufacture of soap, cellophane, detergents and rayon, products for uncovering sinks and drains, as well as in the process of cellulose extraction in the paper industries, etc.
Magnesium hydroxide(Mg (OH)2)
It is present in the solution that is marketed under the name “milk of magnesia”, a product used as a laxative and stomach acid.
Calcium hydroxide(Ca (OH) 2)
Known as hydrated lime or extinct lime, this substance is used in civil construction: in the preparation of mortar (sand + lime) and in lime paint; the sugar industries used calcium hydroxide in the purification of common sugar.
Ammonium Hydroxide (NH4OH)
This substance is obtained in an aqueous solution of ammonia gas and sold as ammonia. It is used in the manufacture of household cleaning products, in the development of photographic films, in detergents, in the textile industry, etc.
Potassium Hydroxide (KOH)
Known as caustic potash, it is used for bleaching, in the manufacture of soft soaps and in the processing of certain foods.