Biotechnology what is?
Biotechnology what is ?Biotechnology is the use of biology to solve problems and create useful products. The most prominent aspect of biotechnology is the production of genetically modified therapeutic proteins and other drugs by genetic engineering.
Human have harnessed:
Humans have harnessed vital processes to improve their quality of life over the past ten thousand years, beginning with the earliest agricultural societies. About 6 thousand years ago, when humans began to exploit the biological processes of microorganisms to make bread, alcoholic drinks, and cheeses to preserve dairy products. But these processes are not intended for what is known today as biotechnology.
The term was first given broadly to the molecular and cellular technologies that began to appear in the 1960s and 1970s. The nascent biotech industry began to merge between the mid and late 1970s, led by the company (Genentech).
It is a pharmaceutical company established in 1976 by Robert A. Swanson, Herbert W. Boyer to showcase and market an innovative recombinant DNA technology by Boyer, Paul Berg and Stanley N. Cohen.
Early companies such as Genentech, Amgen, Biogen, Cetus and Genex began to manufacture genetically engineered materials primarily for medicinal and environmental uses.
For more than a decade, recombinant DNA (or genetic engineering) has dominated the biotechnology industry. This technique consists of separating a gene to extract a useful protein (often a human protein) from producer cells – such as yeasts, bacteria, or mammalian cells in a culture – that subsequently produce the protein in quantities. And during the process of separating the gene into a productive cell, a new organism is created.
Investors and researchers:
Initially, investors and researchers in biotechnology feared that courts would not allow them to obtain patents on living things; It was not allowed to obtain patents for newly discovered organisms that were recognized in nature.
Supreme Court of United States of America:
However, in 1980, the Supreme Court of the United States of America ruled that “microorganisms made by humans are patentable.” This ruling led to a wave of biotech enterprises and the first investment explosion in the nascent industry.
In 1982, recombinant insulin became the first product manufactured through genetic engineering to receive FDA approval. Since then, dozens of GM protein drugs have been marketed around the world, including recombinant versions of growth hormone, clotting factors, proteins that mimic red and white blood cell production, interferons and thrombolytics.
Primary goal of biotechnology:
In the early years, the primary goal of biotechnology was the ability to naturally produce therapeutic molecules in larger amounts than extracted via conventional sources such as plasma, animal organs, and human cadavers. The recombinant proteins are also less contaminated with pathogens or triggers of allergic reactions.
Today biotechnology, researchers seek to discover:
Today, biotechnology researchers seek to discover the molecular root causes of disease and intervene precisely at the same level. Sometimes this means producing therapeutic proteins that meet the body’s special needs or to replace a deficiency caused by a genetic defect, such as the first generation of biotech drugs, for example.
But the biotechnology industry has expanded its research to include the development of conventional therapies (monoclonal antibodies) that stop disease progression. Similar steps were discovered through painstaking study of genes (the study of genomics), the proteins encoded by them (the study of proteomics), and their broader biological pathways for interaction.
Biotechnology, is involved in combining biological information with computer technology:
In addition to the aforementioned tools, biotechnology is involved in combining biological information with computer technology, bioinformatics, by studying the use of microscopic equipment that enters the human body, nanotechnology, and possibly applying techniques in stem cell research and cloning to replace cells. And dead or defective tissue (regenerative medicine).
Corporations and academic laboratories:
Integrate different and disparate technologies to analyze down to molecules, and synthesize upward from molecular biology to chemical pathways, tissues, and organs.
Applications of biotechnology:
In addition to its use in health, biotechnology has proven useful in industrial purification processes by discovering and producing bio-enzymes that stimulate chemical reactions; This enhances environmental protection, by means of enzymes that convert pollutants into harmless substances; And in agricultural production through genetic engineering.
Among the applications of biotechnology, agricultural applications have been the most controversial. Some activists and consumer groups have called for a ban (genetically modified organisms or GMOs) or laws that require the placing of labels that show consumers the presence of GMOs in food.
Production of GMOs began in the United States of America in agriculture in 1993, when the US Food and Drug Administration authorized the use of bovine somatotropin (“BST”), a growth hormone that increases milk production in cows. And the following year, the authority approved the first genetically modified whole food, which is tomatoes modified to stay longer after harvest (that is, they can be stored for long periods).
Since then many GMOs have been declared cleared in the United States, Europe, and other regions, including fruits that produce pest control on their own and fruits that can survive with the toxins that are used to kill weeds.
Studies by the United Nation:
The US National Academy of Sciences, the European Union, the American Medical Association, US regulatory agencies and other organizations have found that GMOs are safe, but the controversy arises is that it is still too early to judge the long-term health effects of these fruits and their impact. Environmental.
In the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, the land planted with genetically modified fruits increased dramatically, from 1.7 million hectares (4.7 million acres) in 1996 to 160 million hectares (395 million acres) in 2011.
Income of the biotechnology, industry in United States of America:
In general, the income of the biotechnology industry in the United States of America and Europe nearly doubled in the five years from 1996 to 2000. Growth continued rapidly in the 21st century, underpinned by the introduction of new results, especially in the field of healthcare.
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