What is biotechnology an overview?
Biotechnology definition research and applications
Biotechnology definition research and applications are listed here.Biotechnology is the use of biology to solve problems and make useful products. The most prominent facet of biotechnology is the production of genetically modified therapeutic proteins and other drugs through genetic engineering.
Biological processes :
Humans have harnessed vital processes to improve their quality of life during the past 10,000 years, starting with the first agricultural societies. About 6 thousand years ago, when humans began exploiting the biological processes of microorganisms to make bread, alcoholic beverages, and cheeses to preserve dairy products. But these processes are not intended for what is today known as biotechnology.
Moleculer and cellular technologies:
The term was first widely termed molecular and cellular technologies that began to appear in the 1960s and 1970s. The nascent biotechnology industry began to merge in the mid-to-late 1970s, led by Genentech.
Innovative recombinant DNA technology :
It is a pharmaceutical company established in 1976 by Robert A. Robert A. Swanson, Herbert W. Boyer (Herbert W. Boyer) to demonstrate and commercialize the innovative recombinant DNA technology by Boyer, Paul Berg and Stanley N. Cohen. Early companies such as Genentech, Amgen, Biogen, Cetus and Genex started manufacturing genetically engineered materials primarily for medical and environmental uses.
Genetic engineering :
For more than a decade, recombinant (or genetic engineering) technology has overwhelmed the biotechnology industry. This technique consists of gene separation to extract a beneficial protein (often human protein) from producing cells – such as yeasts, bacteria, or mammalian cells on a farm – that produce the protein in later quantities. During the gene separation process of a productive cell, a new organism is created.
Biotechnology investors and reserchers :
Initially, biotechnology investors and researchers feared that courts would not allow them to obtain patents in living organisms, as patents of newly discovered organisms that were recognized in nature were not permitted.
Human made microorganisms :
In 1980, however, the United States Supreme Court ruled that “human-made microorganisms are patentable.” This ruling led to a wave of biotechnology institutions and the first investment explosion in the nascent industry.
Recombinant insulin :
In 1982, recombinant insulin became the first product made through genetic engineering to obtain FDA approval. Since then, dozens of transgenic protein drugs have been marketed around the world, including recombinant versions of growth hormone, clotting factors, and mimic proteins for the production of red and white blood cells, interferon and thrombolytic solvents.
Primary goal of biotechnology :
In the early years, the primary goal of biotechnology was the ability to naturally produce therapeutic molecules in greater amounts than extracted through traditional sources such as plasma, animal organs, and human carcasses. Recombinant proteins are also less contaminated with pathogens or triggers of allergic reactions.
Moleculer root causes of disease :
Today, biotechnology researchers are striving to discover the molecular root causes of disease and to intervene accurately at the same level. This sometimes means producing therapeutic proteins that provide the body’s special needs or to compensate for a deficiency caused by a genetic defect, such as for example the first generation of biotechnology.
Development of traditional therapies :
But the biotechnology industry has expanded to include research into the development of traditional therapies and monoclonal antibodies that halt disease progression. Similar steps were discovered through painstaking study of genes (the study of genomics), the encoded proteins (the study of genetic proteins), and their broader biological ways of interaction.
Bioinformatics and computer technology :
In addition to the aforementioned tools, biotechnology is included in the combination of bioinformatics and computer technology, bioinformatics, by studying the use of microscopic equipment entering the human body, nanotechnology, and techniques may be applied in stem cell research and cloning to replace cells And dead or defective tissue (regenerative medicine).
Academic companies and laboratories :
Academic companies and laboratories integrate different and varying technologies for analysis down to molecules, synthesis up from molecular biology to chemical pathways, tissues, and organs.
Applications of biotechnology in industry :
In addition to its use in health, biotechnology has proven useful in industrial purification processes through the discovery and production of biological enzymes that stimulate chemical reactions; which enhances environmental protection, by enzymes that convert pollutants into harmless substances; and in agricultural production through genetic engineering.
Applications of biotechnology in agriculture :
Among the applications of biotechnology, agricultural applications have been the most controversial. Some activists and consumer groups have called for the prohibition of (genetically modified organisms or GMOs) or the enactment of laws requiring labeling to show consumers the presence of genetically modified substances on food.
Production of GMOs:
The production of GMOs in the United States of America began in agriculture in 1993, when the US Food and Drug Administration authorized the use of bovine somatotropin (BST), a growth hormone that increases milk production in cows. The following year, the commission (declared) approved the first genetically modified whole food, modified tomatoes, to stay longer after the harvest (i.e. can be stored for long periods).
Since then, many GMOs have been declared in the United States, Europe and other regions, including fruits that produce anti-insecticide themselves and fruits that can survive with toxins used to kill weeds.
American national acedmy of sciences :
Studies by the United Nations, the American National Academy of Sciences, the European Union, the American Medical Association, American regulatory agencies and other organizations have found that GMOs are safe, but the controversy is that it is still too early to judge the long-term health effects and effects of these fruits. Environmental.
In the late twentieth and early twentieth centuries, land planted with genetically modified fruits increased dramatically, from 1.7 million hectares (4.7 million acres) in 1996 to 160 million hectares (395 million acres) in 2011.
In general, the biotechnology industry income nearly doubled in the United States of America and Europe during the five years from 1996 to 2000. Growth continued rapidly in the 21st century, enhanced by the presentation of new results, especially in the area of health care.