What are chemical compounds?

Chemical compounds

A compound is a product to which nature assigns fixed proportions, such as the ratios of its elements. At the end of the 18th century, the nature of chemical compounds was unknown It was Joseph L. Proust, supported by experiments, who declared that certain salts and oxides could be constituted in a continuous category of proportions. He distinguished solutions, glasses, alloys, and true compounds.

What are chemical compounds?

In chemistry, any substance that has been formed by an alliance of two or more components of the periodic table is known as a compound . At the same time, it is made up of molecules or ions with firm bonds. They are not the casual choice of the human being. They are not divided or separated by physical methods such as refining, filtration or distillation, only by artificial procedures.

  • Definition
  • Characteristics of chemical compounds
  • Source
  • History
  • Classification
  • Types of chemical compounds
  • Properties
  • Training
  • Formula
  • Importance
  • Examples of chemical compounds


A chemical compound is any substance composed of two or more atoms of different types. It has a stoichiometry in a fixed proportion. It has a unique and precise chemical distribution. Their union is due to the spatial arrangement specified by chemical bonds.

There are compounds of the molecular type, which remain linked by covalent bonds, salts that are held together by ionic bonds, and intermetallic combinations held together by metallic bonds. Also subgroups conserved in union by ordered covalent bonds.

Characteristics of chemical compounds

The characteristics of chemical compounds vary depending on whether they are organic or inorganic:


  • Its state is liquid or gaseous.
  • They are insoluble in water.
  • They have insulating conductivity.
  • Its melting point is low.


  • Its state is solid.
  • They are soluble in water.
  • They are conductors in solution and molten.
  • They have a high melting point.


Every chemical element has been formed in the interior or background of the planets and stars , thanks to complicated transformations and processes of liquefaction and atomic fission. These metamorphoses generate quite heavy elements through a process known as nucleosynthesis. And this is how all matter in the cosmos is supposed to have originated. Except for those elements that man has invented or created by himself. These have originated in laboratories or with the support of nuclear reactors.


The definition of a chemical substance was solidly instituted in the 18th century. The chemist Joseph Proust carried out work related to the structure of certain pure chemicals. From the same he obtained the conclusion that every sample of a compound has the same structure, and the same mass, of the substances that compose it.

The aforementioned is known as the Law of constant composition. The advancement of compilation methods in organic chemistry, the discovery of numerous chemical elements and new techniques in the area of ​​research, produced the birth of current chemistry.


According to the type of chemical bond, chemical compounds are divided:

  • Molecules fused in covalent bonds.
  • Intermetallic aggregates reconciled by metal bonds, usually occur in atoms of the iron type.
  • Ionic mixtures united by electromagnetic alliances and endowed with a negative or positive charge.
  • Compounds that hold their elongated structures together, through systematized covalent bonds.

By their composition, they are divided:

  • Inorganic compounds : They are those that have nothing to do with life. They congregate with each other in different ways, obeying essential properties of the biosphere. In turn, they are classified as:
    • Hydroxides : They are formed by the reaction of a basic oxide and water, characterized by showing the hydroxyl group.
    • Basic oxides: Also called metallic oxides, it is made up of a metal and oxygen.
    • Hydrides : Of metallic or non-metallic origin. Composed of one component and hydrogen.
    • Acidic oxides: Also mentioned as non-metallic oxides. It is made up of a nonmetal and oxygen.
    • Oxisales : They are formed by the reaction of an oxacid and a hydroxide.
    • Hydracids : They are non-metallic hydrides that, when dissolved in water, acquire an acid character.
    • Binary salts: Compounds formed by a hydracid plus a hydroxide.
    • Oxacids: Those derived from the union of an acid oxide with water. The molecules are developed in a nonmetal, oxygen and hydrogen.
  • Organic compounds: Its base element is carbon, and the others are built around it. They are the fundamental compounds for the chemistry of life. They may be:
    • Polymers: Macro molecules, the result of the union of small molecules known as monomers.
    • Aromatics: It is a fused cyclical combination, possessing great stability, due to its electronic delocalization in pi relationships.
    • Aliphatic: They are organic compounds created with carbon and hydrogen, they are not aromatic.
    • Metallic organs: Carbon atoms create covalent bonds, carry electrons , with metallic atoms.
    • Heterocyclic: They are constant organic aggregates where at least one of the elements of the cycle is different from carbon.

Types of chemical compounds

Four types are known, which obey the way in which the atoms that form it are united:

  • Molecules fused by covalent bonds.
  • Ionic compounds formed by ionic bonds.
  • Intermetallic compounds fused by metallic bonds.
  • Certain mixtures that are held together by ordered covalent alliances.


Inorganic: They are derived from natural processes or by human intrusion into the laboratory. It is formed regularly by chemical reactions. Impulses of a chemical and physical nature intervene such as sublimation , fusion and others. They generally lack carbon.

Organic: They have carbon compounds. They are caused by the living being (molecules linked to living individuals).


Chemical compounds are developed by a minimum of 2 elements. These have activated each other and produced a substance other than the original components. There are three types of bonds that a compound can have: ionic, covalent, and metallic. Compound form:

  • Organic : Developed by covalent bonds (bonds of two non-metallic atoms). They have a combination of carbon and hydrogen bonds. More atoms such as nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur stand out.
  • Inorganic : They are formed by ionic and covalent bonds, that is, a nonmetal and a metal. It lacks carbon-hydrogen bonds.


Scientists represent compounds with chemical symbols of the connected atoms. The formula gives information on the contribution of atoms. Regulated abbreviations of the elements and subscripts are used to show the number of atoms included. This is how the formula of water (H2O) indicates that it is composed of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen.

Regarding the order of the elements in the formula, with the inorganic ones the most electronegative is placed on the right. In the formula for sodium chloride (NaCl), chlorine is the most electronegative. Organic compounds have other rules where they use skeletal or semi-advanced formulas to formulate them.


Their importance lies in the fact that they intervene in innumerable aspects of human life, among which are:

  • The food industry: In it he studies food processing and intervenes in nutrition.
  • In medicine: Its purpose is to identify the synthesis and advancement of new chemical compounds that are appropriate for therapeutic use.
  • Mining: The chemical composition is very important to be able to differentiate the minerals. For this purpose, qualitative and quantitative chemical tests are carried out. It is also useful to determine the symmetry of the crystals.

Examples of chemical compounds

It is very easy to find frequent examples of chemical compounds :

  • In the home: Water (H 2 O), sodium hydroxide or caustic soda (NaOH), sold as lentils, flakes or pearls. Sugar or sucrose (C 12 H 22 O 11 ). Oil. Salt (NaCl). Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) and vinegar, acetic acid dilution (C 2 H 4 O 2 ).
  • In medicine, certain drugs are simple in composition, such as iodine, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium bicarbonate. There are also medications such as antibiotics, antipyretics, anti-inflammatories and analgesics.
  • Invented by man, they include sugar, butter, detergents, chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, wines, shampoo and others.

More dangerous: They stand out: Asbestos, causing cancer. Arsenic , very toxic. Benzene, causes cancer and anemia. Cadmium, toxic, damages kidneys and bone system. Fluoride, the excess causes fluorosis of the enamel and bones. Mercury , quite toxic to human health.

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