Chloric acid is a chemical compound , a type of chlorine oxacid that is used to create chlorate salts. It is a fairly strong acid and also an important oxidizing agent . It was discovered thanks to Johan Rudolf , a pharmacist of German origin.
What is Chloric Acid?
Chloric acid is a very unstable , strong and also oxidizing acid that can be present in different aqueous solutions and is one of the oxoacids of chlorine. It is a chemical compound composed of ions of chlorate and hydrogen .
- Chloric acid characteristics
- Chloric acid physical properties
- Chemical properties
- Chloric acid uses
Chloric acid characteristics
The most outstanding characteristics of hydrochloric acid are the following:
- It is a fairly powerful oxidant .
- It has a molecular weight of 84.45914 g / mol.
- It has a density of 1 g / mol.
- It is colorless, in other words, it is colorless .
- It is characterized by being a corrosive compound when it is in the presence of fabrics or metals.
- It is a fairly unstable type of compound .
- It is dangerous for living beings as it is also very irritating .
- It can be stable when in aqueous solution.
- It can be synthesized in laboratories directly from its salts.
- It is also known by the name of hydrogen trioxoclorate (V) .
The structure of chloric acid is shown below:
It consists of a chlorine atom , one hydrogen atom and three oxygen atoms . Two oxygen atoms attached to the chlorine atom are double bonded and the third atom is single bonded. The chemical or molecular formula to represent this chemical structure is HClO3 .
The nomenclature for this type of acid is as follows:
- Systematic nomenclature : it is known by the name of hydrogen trioxoclotate (V) .
- Nomenclature stock : call trioxoclórico acid (V).
- Traditional nomenclature : known as chloric acid .
Chloric acid physical properties
Its main physical properties are mentioned below.
- This acid can only be found in the form of a solution .
- It has no odor nor does it have an aroma that characterizes it.
- It has a density of 1g / ml at 25 ° C.
- Its boiling point is at 100 ° C.
Among its main chemical properties we mention the following:
- Chloric acid has the property of being a fairly strong oxidant and even has the ability, when in high concentrations, to start fires in organic materials .
- It is a fairly strong acid as well and reacts with bases to form chlorate salts.
- It can be disproportionate, giving rise to a wide variety of products such as perchloric acid, chlorine dioxide and oxygen.
- It behaves stably when in cold aqueous solutions .
- It has an acidity of −1 pKa.
- It has a boiling point of 313.15 K (40 ° C).
- Its melting point is 253.15 K (−20 ° C).
Obtaining chloric acid can be done following two different mechanisms:
- Through barium chlorate with sulfuric acid that finally produce barium sulfate through the chemical reaction: Ba (ClO3) 2 + H2SO4 → 2HClO3 + BaSO4 .
- By heating hypochlorous acid to obtain chloric acid following the chemical reaction detailed below: 3HClO → HClO3 + 2HCl.
- Another method of synthesis of chloric acid is the heating of hypochlorous acid to produce chloric acid together with hydrogen chloride .
Chloric acid uses
The main use that is given to chloric acid is in the formation of salts of chlorate , calcium , magnesium , lead , copper , silver and others . It is a reagent that is also used to eliminate heavy metals in the air that have a high level of toxicity, for example, elemental mercury . It is also used as an oxidizing agent and as a catalyst in the polymerization of acrylonitrile . When properly combined with other acids and products, it is functional in cleaning tasks. it is a powerful disinfectant, antibacterial and purifier.
In this case, when it is used as a cleaner , it is used to remove the impurities that accumulate in kitchen utensils because when they are immersed in water with acid, dirt and corrosion come off. It is also used in the treatment of wastewater it works very well eliminating organic matter and microorganisms harmful present in such water.
In the industrial field , chloric acid is used thanks to the different salts that it can produce and to generate other types of compounds such as protochloride of mercury , a compound used to make sparklers . It also works as a type of bactericide to control worm pests that originate in some crops. With it you can also make vinyl chloride , a necessary material for the manufacture of PVC pipes.
Chloric acid is a powerful oxidizing agent and for this reason its ingestion , inhalation or contact with the skin is a health hazard. The fumes of this type of acid can cause serious injuries to the entire respiratory system that can even cause death . When it burns, the smoke it gives off turns into a very irritating , corrosive and also toxic gas . It can also cause serious damage to the kidneys and mucous membranes of the human body.