What are the main factors that influences the climate?
Climate external influences and classification :
Climate external influences and classification are listed in the article by which you can understand it all so first Start with weather and climate definition.
When we talk about the weather, we certainly do not mean the climate itself, as the weather expresses the state of the weather for a short period of time, such as the conditions of the winds and temperatures,
The term climate expresses the weather condition of a specific region over several years.
One of the factors affecting the climate is the angle of sunlight:
In the tropics – between 23.5 ° N and 23.5 ° S – there will be at least once a year when the sun at noon is perpendicular and its radiation is sent at a direct angle, creating a hot climate with a slight difference in temperature between summer and winter.
In the Arctic and Antarctic (north or south latitude 66.5 °), consecutive days pass and may reach months when the sun never rises. Even in the summer, the sun is low enough to have low temperatures compared to the tropics.
Seasonal changes are much larger than in the tropics. Alaska has temperatures of up to 100 degrees Fahrenheit (38 degrees Celsius).
As we approach the equator – where moderate temperatures – which include the United States of America, Europe, China, Canada, and parts of Australia, South America, and South Africa.
The four seasons, winter and spring, summer and autumn, can live in these areas.
Many factors affect the climate, including: wind, ocean, and mountains.
The wind carries moisture to dry land, as the trade wind blows north and south of the equator, from the northeast and southeast. These winds meet in the tropics, producing thunderstorms, humidity, and monsoons.
About 30 degrees from the equator – that is, north and south of the trade wind – a little wind blows, producing little moisture from the ocean. That is why many of the major desert regions of the world – the desert, the Gulf, Iran, Iraq and the provinces of Mexico – are on the same latitude. Similar deserts are also found in Australia, South America and South Africa.
Mountains force winds to rise and rise above them. After the wind rises over the mountains, the air cools, so moisture thickens in the clouds and rain, which creates a humid climate on the opposite side of the wind.
The ocean’s humidity is a source of rainstorms. It is also a storehouse of coastal heat, regardless of its presence in any latitude.
In the early twentieth century, climatologist Vladimir Köppen-Wladimir Geige classified the world into five major climatic groups.
It classified the climate of humid tropics as hot and humid.
The climate of the steppe and desert areas is dry, with a great temperature change.
It classifies lakes, rivers, or oceans as a humid climate, with cold and humid winters, while its summers are hot and dry. Like the Mediterranean climate.
Mountain ranges block an obstacle to the sources of moisture, creating dry regions with significant seasonal temperature changes.Examples include those regions of southern Canada, Russia, and parts of Central Asia.
High heights have recently been added to the Köppen list.