Inorganic chemistry

Acid definition in chemistry?

What are the main features of acids?

Acid definition in chemistry

acid characteristics


The  acids  are all those substances which can release H + ions when diluted in water (aqueous solution).

Due to the release of ions, acids conduct electricity and “most of the time” begins its formula with H (hydrogen), but substances that start with H are not always acidic, such as water H20. The acidity of a medium is defined by the pH.

Content Index :

  • 1 Features
  • 2 Importance
  • 3 Examples of important acids
    • 3.1 Hydrofluoric acid (HF)
    • 3.2 Sulfuric acid (H2So4)
    • 3.3 Nitric acid (HNo3)

Features of acids 

  • They are presented in a liquid state
  • They have a bitter, sour or sour taste.
  • They have low boiling and melting points.
  • They can change the color of certain substances.
  • Your ph is less than 7.
  • Smelling and strong smell.
  • They can form solutions that conduct electricity, releasing ions.
  • They react with metals.

Importance of acids :

Acids are popularly recognized as dangerous to handle and can cause serious burns.

What few people know is that  acids are essential for the maintenance of life  and that they have a wide variety of applications in our daily lives.

In addition, the risks of handling acids are limited to a very small number of substances and depend on their dilution and concentration.

Acids are mainly divided into  organic  and  inorganic . Organic acids are compounds that contain in their structure the carboxyl group  , composed of a carbon atom attached to an oxygen atom by double bond and a hydroxyl group by simple bond.

Among the thousands of known organic acids, some  are of enormous importance to ensure life as we know it . Some known examples are fatty acids, formic acid and acetic acid.

Inorganic acids are of mineral origin and are divided into hydrated acids, when they do not have oxygen in their combination, and oxoacids, when this atom is part of its structure.

Among them, the most used industrially are  hydrochloric acid  (HCL),  nitric acid  (HNO3),  phosphoric acid  (H3PO4) and  sulfuric acid  (H2So4).

Examples of important acids

Hydrofluoric acid (HF)

As this acid reacts with glass and metal, it must be stored in paraffin or polymers such as Teflon. It is very toxic.

Sulfuric Acid (H2So4)

The most popular of acids, it is used in the industry and in the production of fertilizers.

Nitric Acid (HNo3)

Reacts with most metals. Mixed with glycerin and sulfuric acid, it forms explosive nitroglycerin, which is widely used in mining before the discovery of dynamite.

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