The term solution refers specifically to the action and effect of dissolving , in other words, to separate what was connected somehow to mix so homogeneous the molecules found in a substance in a liquid. In the area of chemistry and physics , we find a great variety of solutions that are important to study and know.
What is a dissolution?
A solution is a mixture at the molecular or ionic level of homogeneous consistency that results after dissolving one or two substances that do not react with each other and whose components vary in proportion .
- Components (edit)
- Types of dissolution
A solution is a mixture of homogeneous consistency of two or more pure substances that cannot react with each other and whose components are all in different proportions . It is a mixture that is made up of a solvent and one or more solutes . It is generally made up of a solvent , solvent, dispersant, or dispersion medium.
The main characteristics of the dissolution are mentioned below:
- It is a mixture of homogeneous consistency , this means that the relative proportions of solute and solvent can be present in any quantity within the solution and cannot be separated by means such as centrifugation or filtration.
- It has two different parts that are called solute and solvent . Once the solute has dissolved, it becomes part of the solution.
- When a substance dissolves, the final volume is different than the sum of the volumes of the solvent and the solute .
- The amount of solute and solvent can be found in different proportions . In general, the solvent is the one that is in the highest proportion, although this can vary.
- The physical properties of the solution are different from those of the pure solvent.
- The physical properties depend on the concentration of the solution .
- The chemical properties of its different components cannot be altered.
The components that are present in a solution are basically two, the solvent, which is the substance that is found in a greater proportion , and the solute , which is the substance that is found in the smallest proportion .
Types of dissolution
Dissolution can be classified depending on its state of aggregation , in this way we have several types that are:
By its state of aggregation
- Solid in solid : the solute and the solvent are in the solid state, for example alloys, such as zinc in tin.
- Solid gas : such as hydrogen that dissolves well in metals.
- Liquid in solid : a liquid substance dissolves with a solid, for example amalgams are made with mercury (liquid) mixed with silver (solid).
- Solid in liquid : they are the most used, because they dissolve in small amounts of solid substances in large liquid amounts. For example the water with sugar.
- Gas in liquid : such as oxygen in water or sulfur dioxide in water.
- Liquid in liquid : it is widely used in mixtures of alcohol in water.
- Gas into gas : they are the most common, for example air. With not many molecular interactions, these solutions are very trivial.
- Solid in gas: they are very rare, an example would be sublimated iodine dissolved in nitrogen or atmospheric dust dissolved in air.
- Liquid in gas : for example, humid air.
For its concentration
To classify the solution depending on its concentration, the solution can be analyzed in quantitative or qualitative terms depending on its state and in this way we obtain the following types:
- Empirical solutions: also called qualitative solutions . It does not take into account the numerical amount of solute and solvent present and is classified as:
- Diluted solution : the amount of solute is in a minimal proportion in a given volume.
- Concentrated solution : it has a considerable amount of solute in a given volume.
- Unsaturated solution : it does not have the maximum amount of solute for a given temperature and pressure.
- Saturated solution: they have as much solute as possible for a given temperature and pressure.
- Supersaturated solution : it has more solute than can be in equilibrium at a given temperature and pressure.
- Titrated solutions: This type of solution does take into account the exact numerical amounts of solute and solvent in a solution. It is widely used in the field of science and technology , to achieve high precision. They may be:
The dissolution of a solid implies the breaking of the bonds and that of its components in the liquid. For this to happen, an interaction of the molecules that the solvent has with those of the solute is required . When a solid substance is immersed in a suitable solvent, the molecules on the surface of the solid are surrounded by those of the solvent; This produces the release of energy that is partially transferred to the crystalline lattice and allows some of its particles to detach from it to join the solution .
Some of the applications in which the solutions participate are the following:
- In creating pharmaceutical solutions .
- In the area of chemistry and industry .
- In the production of food products, household products such as cleaning liquids.
- In gasoline , alcohol for medicinal use.
- In the production of hydrocarbons derived from petroleum .
Some examples of dissolution are the following:
- In a bottle of sparkling water in which the solute is carbon dioxide gas (CO2) and the solvent is water.
- The air we breathe is a homogeneous mixture of gases and that is why it is a solution, in which both the solute and the solvent are in a gaseous state.
- The bronze is an alloy of tin and copper.
- The sea water is an example of where the solute solution are various salts and solvent water.