The electrolysis is any chemical process caused by spontaneous not electricity. Ionic substances can conduct electrical current when found in aqueous solutions.
Electrolysis comes from this ionic property, that is, it is a process where there is a loss of charge by anions and cations (discharge of ions).
Electrolysis is an artificial transformation, because it is caused by a generator, but it has enormous practical importance.
It is widely used in industries, in the production of many substances, including alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, hydrogen and chlorine.
- 1 Features
- 2 Examples
- 3 Importance
- 4 Laws of electrolysis
- 4.1 First law
- 4.2 Second law
- 5 Batteries and electrolysis
- 6 Applications of electrolysis
- It is a chemical process.
- The electrolyte dissolves in a certain solvent.
- Oppositely charged ions are kept attracted by each electrode.
- There is electron transfer.
- A direct current is applied through a pair of electrodes.
Electrolysis is a useful process to obtain various chemical elements. For example:
- Sodium: igneous electrolysis of molten NaCl (sodium chloride) in a process that occurs at about 800 ° C.
- Aluminum: igneous electrolysis of Al2O3 (bauxite).
- Caustic soda (NaOH): aqueous electrolysis of NaCl (sodium chloride).
- Hydrogen: aqueous electrolysis of NaCl (sodium chloride).
- Chlorine: igneous electrolysis of gaseous chlorine (Cl2). Chlorine is widely used in the production of chlorinated organic compounds and bleaches, and also for the treatment of drinking water and swimming pools.
Igneous electrolysis is the passage of electric current in an ionic substance in a state of fusion, unlike aqueous electrolysis in which the electrical passage occurs through a conductive liquid.
Electrolysis is widely used in electroplating , that is, to cover objects with a thin layer of metal. Several metal cations, after reduction, adhere to the cathode, causing the formation of a metal layer.
- Nickel plating: coating of an object with nickel.
- Chrome: coating an object with chrome.
It has a great use in industries , in the production of many substances, such as alkali metals, alkaline earth metals , hydrogen and chlorine.
Laws of electrolysis:
The Laws of Electrolysis were developed by the English physicist and chemist Michael de Faraday (1791-1867).
Both laws govern the quantitative aspects of electrolysis.
First law of electrolysis:
The first Law of Electrolysis says the following:
“The mass of an element, deposited during the electrolysis process, is directly proportional to the amount of electricity that passes through the electrolytic cell.”
Second law of Electrolysis:
The second Law of Electrolysis says that:
“The masses of various elements, when deposited during electrolysis by the same amount of electricity, are directly proportional to their respective chemical equivalents.”
Batteries and electrolysis:
Electrolysis is based on a phenomenon inverse to that of batteries. In electrolysis, the process is not spontaneous, as in batteries.
In other words, electrolysis converts electrical energy into chemical energy, while the battery generates electrical energy from chemical energy.
Many materials and chemical compounds are produced from the electrolysis process, for example:
- Aluminum and copper
- Hydrogen and chlorine in cylinder
- Costume jewelery (galvanization process)
- Pressure cooker
- Magnesium rims (car hubcaps)
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