Inorganic chemistry

Element families on the periodic table worksheet ?

Families of elements of periodic table

Element Families on the periodic table

Element Families on the periodic table

01 of 10

Element families on the periodic table

Element families on the periodic table
 Element  families on the periodic table are indicated by numbers located at the top of the periodic table
Items can be categorized based on item families. Knowing how to identify families, the elements included and their properties makes it possible to predict the behavior of unknown elements and their chemical reactions.

What is a family of elements?

Element Families  on the periodic table  is a set of elements sharing common properties. The elements are classified into families because the three main categories of elements (metals, non – metals and semi- metals ) are very broad. The characteristics of the elements of these families are determined mainly by the number of electrons in the shell of external energy. On the other hand, the groupselements are collections of elements categorized according to similar properties. Because the properties of the elements are largely determined by the behavior of the valence electrons, families and groups can be one and the same. However, there are different ways to categorize items into families. Many chemists and chemistry textbooks recognize five main families:

5 families of elements

  1. alkali metals
  2. alkaline earth metals
  3. transition metals
  4. halogen
  5. noble gases

9 families of elements

Another common method of categorization recognizes nine families of elements:

  1. Alkali metals – Group 1 (IA) – 1 valence electron
  2. Alkaline earth metals – Group 2 (IIA) – 2 valence electrons
  3. Transition metals – Groups 3-12 – d and f metal blocks have 2 valence electrons
  4. Boron group or earth metals – Group 13 (IIIA) – 3 valence electrons
  5. Carbon or Tetral group – Group 14 (IVA) – 4 valence electrons
  6. Nitrogen group or Pnictogens – Group 15 (VA) – 5 valence electrons
  7. Oxygen group or chalcogens – Group 16 (VIA) – 6 valence electrons
  8. Halogens – Group 17 (VIIA) – 7 valence electrons
  9. Rare gases – Group 18 (VIIIA) – 8 valence electrons

Recognize families on the periodic table

The columns of the periodic table generally mark groups or families. Three systems were used to number families and groups:

  1. The old IUPAC system used Roman numerals and letters to distinguish the left (A) and right (B) sides of the periodic table.
  2. The CAS system used the letter to differentiate the elements of the main group (A) and the transition (B).
  3. The modern IUPAC system uses the Arabic numerals 1-18, simply numbering the columns of the periodic table from left to right.

Many periodic tables include Roman and Arabic numerals. The Arabic numbering system is the most widely accepted method today.

02 of 10

Alkali metals or group 1 Family of elements

Element families on the periodic table
The highlighted elements of the periodic table belong to the family of alkaline elements. 

The alkali metals are recognized as a group and a family of elements. These elements are metals. Sodium and potassium are examples of members of this family.

  • Group 1 or IA
  • Alkali metals
  • 1 electron valence
  • soft metallic solids
  • shiny, shiny
  • high thermal and electrical conductivity
  • low densities, increasing with atomic mass
  • relatively low melting points, decreasing with atomic mass
  • vigorous exothermic reaction with water to produce hydrogen gas and an alkali metal hydroxide solution
  • ionize to lose their electron, so the ion has a charge of +1
  • Hydrogen is not considered an alkali metal because the gas does not have the properties typical of the group. However, under good conditions of temperature and pressure, hydrogen can be an alkali metal.

03 of 10

Alkaline earth metals or group 2

Element families on the periodic table .
The highlighted elements of this periodic table belong to the family of alkaline earth elements. 

The alkaline earth metals or simply the alkaline earths are recognized as an important group and a family of elements. These elements are metals. Examples include calcium and magnesium.

  • Group 2 or IIA
  • Alkaline earth metals (alkaline earths)
  • 2 valence electrons
  • metallic solids, harder than alkali metals
  • shiny, shiny, oxidize easily
  • high thermal and electrical conductivity
  • denser than alkali metals
  • higher melting points than alkali metals
  • exothermic reaction with water, increasing as you descend into the group. Beryllium does not react with water; magnesium only reacts with steam.
  • ionize to lose their valence electrons, so the ion has a charge of +2

04 of 10

Family of transition metal elements

The highlighted elements of the periodic table belong to the family of transition metal elements.
The highlighted elements of this periodic table belong to the family of transition metal elements. The series of lanthanides and actinides under the body of the periodic table are also transition metals. 

The largest family of elements is made up of transition metals . The center of the periodic table contains the transition metals, plus the two rows below the body of the table (lanthanides and actinides) are special transition metals.

  • Groups 3-12
  • Transition metals or transition elements
  • Block metals d and f have 2 valence electrons
  • hard metallic solids
  • shiny, shiny
  • high thermal and electrical conductivity
  • dense
  • high melting points
  • These large atoms have a range of oxidation states.

05 of 10

Boron group or family of metal earth elements

These are the elements belonging to the boron family.
These are the elements belonging to the boron family. 

The boron group or the family of earth metals is not as well known as some of the other families of elements.

  • Group 13 or IIIA
  • Boron group or earth metals
  • 3 valence electrons
  • various properties, intermediate between those of metals and non-metals
  • best known member of this group is aluminum

06 of 10

Carbon Group or Tetrels Family of elements

The highlighted elements belong to the family of carbon elements.
The highlighted elements belong to the family of carbon elements. These elements are collectively known as tetrels. 

The carbon group is made up of elements called tetrels, which refers to their ability to carry a charge of 4.

  • Group 14 or IVA
  • Carbon group or tetral
  • 4 valence electrons
  • various properties, intermediate between those of metals and non-metals
  • the best known member of this group is carbon, which usually forms 4 bonds

07 of 10

Nitrogen group or family of Pnictogenes elements

The highlighted items belong to the nitrogen family.
The highlighted items belong to the nitrogen family. These elements are collectively known as pnictogens.

The pnictogenic or nitrogen group is a family of significant elements.

  • Group 15 or VA
  • Nitrogen group or Pnictogens
  • 5 valence electrons
  • various properties, intermediate between those of metals and non-metals
  • best known member of this group is nitrogen

08 of 10

Oxygen group or family of chalcogenic elements

The highlighted items belong to the oxygen family.
The highlighted items belong to the oxygen family. These elements are called chalcogens. 

The chalcogen family is also known as the oxygen group.

  • Group 16 or VIA
  • Oxygen group or chalcogens
  • 6 valence electrons
  • various properties, going from non-metallic to metallic when you go down the family
  • the best known member of this group is oxygen

09 of 10

Family of halogen elements

The highlighted elements of this periodic table belong to the family of halogen elements.
The highlighted elements of this periodic table belong to the family of halogen elements. 

The halogen family is a group of reactive non-metals.

  • Group 17 or VIIA
  • halogens
  • 7 valence electrons
  • non-reactive metals
  • melting points and boiling points increase with increasing atomic number
  • high electronic affinities
  • change state down the family, with fluorine and chlorine existing as gas at room temperature while bromine in a liquid and iodine is a solid

10 of 10

Family of noble gas elements

The highlighted elements of this periodic table belong to the family of rare gas elements.
The highlighted elements of this periodic table belong to the family of rare gas elements. 

The noble gases are a family of non-reactive non-metals. Examples include helium and argon.

  • Group 18 or VIIIA
  • Rare gases or inert gases
  • 8 valence electrons
  • generally exist as monoatomic gases , although these elements (rarely) form compounds
  • stable electron byte makes these elements non-reactive (inert) under ordinary circumstances

You may also look through

The periodic table families?

You may also like that one

What is periodic table?

Related Articles

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Back to top button