Enzymes work functions and examples ?
Enzymes work functions and examples are clearly explained here. Enzymes (or sometimes called enzymes) speed up chemical reactions in the human body, as they bind to molecules and modify them with a specialized mechanism. Enzymes are essential for breathing and digesting food and muscle and nervous functions, as well as thousands of other functions. In this article we will explain what an enzyme is and how it works, and give some common examples of some enzymes in the human body.
Enzymes building blocks of proteins:
Enzymes are made of folded proteins in complex shapes and scattered throughout the body. The chemical reactions that keep us alive – metabolic reactions (metabolism) – depend mainly on the enzymes. The enzymes catalyze the chemical reactions, as they can in some cases make the reaction a million times faster than its speed without the presence of the catalyst.
The substrate (the chemical reactive molecule) is bound to the active site of the enzyme and converted into products. Once the products leave the active site of the enzyme, the enzyme is prepared directly to bind to a new substrate, and repeat the process itself.
- In the digestive system: enzymes help the body break down large complex molecules into smaller, simpler molecules, such as glucose, so the body can use it as an energy source.
- DNA multiplication: All cells in your body possess deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and each time the cell divides, the DNA needs to be duplicated. Enzymes help in this process by dissolving the folded DNA and copying information from it.
- Hepatic enzymes: The liver analyzes toxins in the body, and to complete this process, the liver uses a large number of enzymes.
How do enzymes work?
First, the lock and key model was proposed in 1894. In this model, the active site of the enzyme has a specific shape, and this shape fits only the substrate, just like the lock and key. Now this model has been modernized and has been called the “Induced-fit model”.
In this model, the active site changes its shape when it interacts with the substrate, and once the substrate is installed in its appropriate location, the stimulation process begins.
Ideal conditions for making enzymes
Enzymes work only in specific conditions, and most enzymes in the human body operate at 37 ° C, which is the normal body temperature. At lower temperatures, the enzymes continue to work, but much slower.
Likewise, enzymes can work at a specific pH range, and the pH preferred by the enzymes depends on their location in the body. For example, intestinal enzymes work better at pH (PH = 7.5), while infectious enzymes prefer pH = 2) Because the stomach is more acidic.
If the temperature is too high, or the environment is too acidic or alkaline, the enzymes change their shape, and thus the shape of the active site changes what prevents the substrates from binding to it, in this case it is called an enzyme (denatured).
Auxiliary factors for the work of enzymes
Some enzymes can only work if they are bound to a specific type of non-protein molecule, called cofactors. For example, a carbonic anhydrase helps maintain the degree of PH in the body and cannot do its work unless it is bound to the zinc ion.
Inhibition of enzymes
To ensure that all body systems function efficiently, some enzymes sometimes need to be limited, that is, when an enzyme’s production increases dramatically, we need a way to reduce or stop production. The activity of enzymes can be inhibited in several ways:
- Competitive inhibitors: one of the molecules blocks the active site of the enzyme as the substrate has to compete with the inhibitor for binding to the enzyme.
- Non-competitive inhibitors: the molecule binds to the enzyme somewhere other than the active site, reducing its potency.
- Uncompetitive inhibitors: the inhibitor is bound to the enzyme and substrate after they are bound together, which makes removing the products from the active site more difficult, and thus the reaction becomes slower.
- Permanent inhibitors -: Irreversible inhibitors: the inhibitor is bound to the enzyme and permanently deactivates it.
Examples of some enzymes and their functions
- Lipases – a group of enzymes that help digest fats in the intestine.
- Amylase: Helps convert starches into sugars and is found in saliva.
- Maltase – found in saliva, it converts maltose sugar into glucose. Maltose is found in some foods such as potatoes and beer.
- Trypsin – found in the small intestine, breaks down proteins into amino acids.
- Lactase: Found in the small intestine, lactose (milk sugar) breaks down into glucose and galactose.
- Acetylcholinesterase – Esterase acetylcholine: Analyzes the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in nerves and muscles.
- Helicase: analysis of RNAs , such as .DNA
- DNA Polymerase: Manufacture of DNA from deoxyribonucleotides.
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