Facts about oxygen discovery and search:
Facts about oxygen discovery and search are as follows :
Ins and Outs. For oxygen to survive, the component that keeps most of life on Earth.
The eighth element in the periodic table of elements is a colorless gas that makes up 21% of the Earth’s atmosphere, and because it exists everywhere, it is easy not to consider oxygen an inert or boring gas; in fact, it is the most reactive non-metallic element.
The Earth was oxidized 2.3 to 2.4 billion years ago, and its levels began to rise 2.5 billion years ago, according to a study funded by NASA in 2007.
Nobody knows why friendly lung gas has become an important part of our atmosphere, but it may be because geological changes have led to the survival of oxygen produced by photosynthesis organisms, rather than being consumed in geological reactions, according to researchers in this study.
More Important facts about oxygen :
Some other facts about oxygen are as follows :
Atomic number (number of protons in the nucleus): 8
Atomic symbol (on the periodic table of elements): O
Atomic weight (average mass of the atom): 15.9994
Density: 0.001492 grams per cubic centimeter
Room temperature: Gas
Melting point: minus 361.82 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 218.79 degrees Celsius)
Boiling point: minus 297.31 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 182.95 degrees Celsius)
Number of isotopes (atoms of the same element but have a different number of neutrons): 11; three of them are stable
Most common isotopes: O-16 (99.757% natural abundance)
Oxygen is the third most abundant element in the universe, according to the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.
However, its extreme potency initially made it relatively rare in Earth’s atmosphere.
Crickets, which are “breathing” organisms using photosynthesis, take carbon dioxide and release oxygen, like contemporary plants.
Crocus was most likely responsible for the first oxygen on Earth, an event known as the Big O event.
The photosynthesis occurred in the cobalt before large quantities of oxygen accumulated in the Earth’s atmosphere. A 2014 study published in the journal Natural Earth Sciences found that 2.95 billion rocks found in South Africa contained oxides that required free oxygen to form.
These rocks were in shallow seas, showing that oxygen from photosynthesis first began to accumulate in a marine environment about half a billion years before the beginning of its accumulation in the atmosphere about 2.5 billion years ago.
Life now relies heavily on oxygen, but the beginning of this element’s accumulation in the atmosphere was only a disaster.
The new atmosphere led to the genocide of the anaerobic organisms, which do not need oxygen.
The anaerobes that could not adapt or survive with oxygen died in the new world.
The first suspicion of human beings regarding the presence of oxygen was in 1608, when Dutch inventor Cornelius Drepel said that heating rock salt (potassium nitrate) led to the release of gas, according to the Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC).
Gas identity about oxygen :
Gas identity remained a mystery until the 1970s, when three chemists discovered it simultaneously.
The chemist and British priest Joseph Priestley isolated the oxygen by exposing mercury oxide to sunlight and collecting the gas from the reaction.
He pointed out that the candle burns brighter in this gas, according to the Royal Society of Chemistry, thanks to the role of oxygen in combustion.
Priestley published his results in 1774, defeating the Swedish scientist Carl Wilhelm Scheele, who has isolated oxygen since 1771, but he has not published its results.
Oxygen discovery :
The third oxygen was discovered by the French chemist Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier, who gave him his name. The word arose from the Greek words “oxy” and “gene”, which means “component of citrus.”
Oxygen has eight electrons, two electrons in the inner shell of an atom and six electrons in the outer shell.
The outer shell can carry eight electrons, which explains the tendency of oxygen to interact with other elements: its outer shell is incomplete, so the electrons are free to be taken or given.
Who knew :
When it is gas it is colorless, but when it is liquid it becomes pale blue.
If you’ve ever wondered what it would look like to swim in a pool of liquid oxygen, the answer is: cold, extremely cold, according to Carl Zorn of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.
The oxygen temperature must be negative 297.3 ° F (183 ° C) to become liquid, so frostbite will be a problem.
Too little oxygen will lead to problems.
It can lead to many problems as well. Breathing oxygen by 80% for more than 12 hours will cause lung irritation and ultimately build up deadly fluid, according to University of Florida and Air Products.
A study published in the Physical Review Letters in 2012 found that an oxygen molecule (2O) could survive under 19 million times more pressure than the atmosphere.
The lowest levels of oxygen recorded in human blood were measured near the summit of Mount Everest in 2009.
The level of intravenous oxygen for climbers was 3.28 kPa.
Compare this number with the normal amount that ranges from 12 to 14 kPa, and you will find that the term for mountain climbers called “death zone” is very logical.
These results are published in the New England Journal of Medicine.
We should be grateful for the approximate oxygen content of 21% in the atmosphere.
300 million years ago, when oxygen levels reached 35%, insects managed to become very large, imagining a dragonfly whose wings were long along eagle wings.
Current search on oxygen :
Oxygen is formed in the heart of stars, with the merging of the carbon-12 nucleus and the helium-4 nucleus (also known as the alpha particle).
Only recently have scientists been able to look at the oxygen core and reveal its structure.
In March 2014, North Carolina University physicist Dean Lee and colleagues said that they had discovered the nuclear composition of oxygen-16, the most common isotope of oxygen, in its basic state (the state in which electrons are at the lowest possible level of energy) and in the first catalytic state (energy level) the first).
Why do we care about something like this? Well, to understand how nuclei form in stars – is to understand how building milk relates together in the universe.
Li and his colleagues discovered that the carbon-12 nucleus, with its six protons and six neutrons, is really three clusters, each of which contains two protons and two neutrons.
If Carbon 12 contains three alpha clusters, the researchers conclude that oxygen-16 has four clusters, since it has eight protons and eight neutrons.
Using supercomputers’ simulations and numerical structures, scientists were able to know how particles are arranged in the oxygen-16 nucleus.
They found that there are four alpha clusters of the basic state of oxygen-16, carefully arranged in tetrahedron.
Live Science told me: “Alpha clusters are like curly balls, and these curly balls would like to come into contact with each other through some superficial interaction.” The quadrilateral structures allow the clusters to be tight and precise.
But there was another quantitative puzzle that needed to be solved.
The basic state of oxygen-16 and the first catalytic state share an unusual characteristic.
Each of them has the same rotation – a value that shows how a particle rotates, and the same valence, a method for determining symmetry.
Imagine the reflection of the right and the left in the entire universe, but you should keep the subatomic particles the same way.
When particles of positive valence see themselves in the inverse universe they will remain the same.
Particles of negative valence will have to turn around, lest they end up reversing like reading a text in the mirror.
He tells me: “The puzzle was why did you have the two lowest states of oxygen – 16 turns with zero and positive equivalence,” given that these two conditions are different. Completely basic case.
Instead of a tetrahedron arrangement, alpha particles arrange themselves on a square or similar square.
He added, “The internal structure of the two was different.”
The completely different arrangement explains how the same rotation and parity remains – the cores take different paths to reach the same result.
There are still some quantitative interactions in the oxygen-16 atom that need much more accurate solution and details to be discovered.
“There are many interesting things that happen inside the little things like the cores. There are stories of how it happened that we have begun to understand. ”
Lee’s work looks for the formation of oxygen in stars; other research focuses on the role of oxygen in life on Earth.
Shortly after the great oxygenation occurred 2.4 billion years ago, it is possible that the oxygen levels have now reached or exceeded the oxygen levels before they collapsed,
as Daniel Mills, PhD candidate at the Northern Center for Earth Development at the University of Southern Denmark said: Even after a long time, with the appearance of the simplest animals about 600 million years ago.
Despite theories that the emergence of oxygen paved the way for the emergence of animals, the story looks much more complex.
Mill and colleagues said in February 2014 in the journal PNAS that contemporary marine sponges can breathe and grow in an environment where the amount of oxygen is from 0.5 to 4% of the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere now.
Sponge appears to be the most living animal similar to the first animal on Earth, Mills said.
The results that say that the sponge does not need high levels of oxygen to live show that there is something else that led to the emergence of the first life on Earth, although a higher level of oxygen was necessary to reach this diversity in the forms of life that we see today, as Mills said: “Even in modern times, some animals, such as nematodes, thrive in places with low oxygen in the ocean,” he added.
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