Organic chemistry

What are Functional groups in organic chemistry?

Describe the main features of functional group?

What are functional groups in organic chemistry?

Functional group in organic chemistry :

Functional group in organic chemistry are listed below briefly first we have to know what is a functional group?

Definition :

The  functional groups  are groups of atoms arranged in submolecular structures which alter the properties of the substances.

In  Inorganic Chemistry  the compounds are grouped into functions, which are: acids, bases, salts and oxides. This was done to facilitate the study of these compounds.

Similarly, in  Organic Chemistry , the carbon element compounds were grouped with similar structural characteristics and properties, thus forming the functional groups.

The only difference between this division made by these two branches of Chemistry is that the number of functional groups of Organic Chemistry is much greater (more than ten).

Features of functional group :

  • Functional groups can change the properties of substances.
  • There are different types of functional groups.
  • They influence the reactivity and the different types of chemical reactions of the molecules.
  • They are what allow reactions and interactions between molecules.
  • They determine the properties of the molecules.

Importance of functional group :

Functional groups  are important because they give characteristics to the organic functions that make up the matter   and, to maintain it, the constant presence of existing organic compounds on our planet is necessary.

It is they who determine the interactions that the molecules establish with themselves and with neighboring molecules.

In addition, they  are responsible for the reactivity of the molecules . In other words, a certain functional group always reacts in the same way with another group (for example, a carboxylic group always originates an ester when it reacts with an alcohol), regardless of the remaining composition of the molecule where it is inserted.

At the same time, it is the presence of functional groups that makes a molecule more or less reactive.

Therefore, it can be said that the functional groups  determine the reactivity and the types of chemical reactions that the molecules can suffer .

Examples of functional group :

Some functional groups are:

  • Hydrocarbons
  • Ethers
  • Esters
  • Alcohols
  • Ketones
  • Aldehydes
  • Amines
  • Amides

.Carboxylic acids

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