Glass manufacturing process in 5 steps :
Manufacturing of glass in 5 steps is listed here.The first traces of glass objects date back almost 3,000 years BC. The major stages in the manufacture of this material, which can be as hard as it is fragile, have not changed much.
The basic component ofmanufacturing is the or, more precisely, the (SiO 2 ) it contains.
1.Sand casting (silica)
The problem is thathas the annoying tendency to melt only at very high temperatures, above 1,700 ° C. So, to facilitate the process, add fluxes such as , potash or . We also add water and debris which we call “ ”. All in very precise proportions.It is also at this stage that some additives are inserted which depend on the use that will be made of the glass:
- oxide , for example, to make the glass more resistant;
- oxide to give the glass a greenish tint.
The mixture is then placed in the oven and brought to aof around 1,500 ° C. This is the temperature at which the sandy mixture turns into glass .
2.Glass shaping (hot transformation)
Once melted, and before cooling, the glass can be shaped using different techniques. It can, for example, be blown, poured into a mold or even floated on abath .
3.Glass heat treatment
The glass then generally needs to be reinforced by theof a . To eliminate the stress points which are installed during , an annealing can be used at temperatures up to 600 ° C.
To further improve theof the glass, it can be tempered. In this case, after being heated to around 600 ° C, the glass is rapidly cooled under the effect of a high fan .
Glass is one of the most easily. Indeed, recycled glass melts at much lower temperatures than silica and the addition of fluxes becomes superfluous. However, production from recycled glass requires at least 20% new material. In 2013, the glass rate in France reached 74%.
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