# What is the Heisenberg atomic model?

## Heisenberg atomic model

It is important to mention before studying **Heisenberg’s atomic model** , that these types of **model** are a **conceptual diagram** or a type of representation about the **structure** that an **atom** has , and that its main objective is to explain its **properties** and the way in which this one **works** . Throughout history a great variety of atomic models have been created, the first of which was postulated by the Greek philosopher and mathematician **Democritus** . In the case of the **Heisenberg** atomic model , the **uncertainty principle** is introduced about the electrons surrounding the**nucleus** of the **atom** .

## What is the Heisenberg atomic model?

Heisenberg’s atomic model is by means of which a **calculation** was made about the **behavior** of the **electrons** that made up the atom, which helped to understand the **patterns** in their **movements** within the **atom** .

- What is the Heisenberg atomic model?
- features
- Heisenberg’s atomic model postulates
- Contributions
- Experiment
- What problems does Heisenberg’s atomic model present?
- Importance

## What is the Heisenberg atomic model?

Heisenberg’s atomic model consists of the introduction **of the uncertainty principle** in the **orbitals** possessed by the **electrons** that surround the **atomic nucleus,** introducing the principles of **quantum mechanics** to achieve an estimate of the behavior of the subatomic particles that an atom has. .

This uncertainty principle tells us that the **position** or **momentum of** an **electron** cannot be known with certainty . It tells us that if there is a clue about the position of the electron, we will not know the linear momentum of the **electron** , and vice versa. This uncertainty occurs when we try to know simultaneously two **conjugate quantities** , such as **position** and **linear momentum** , and **time** together with **energy** .

## features

The main characteristics of Heisenberg’s atomic model are the following:

- The
**uncertainty principle was**born as an explanation for the new**atomic theories**about the behavior of electrons. - Used
**instruments**of**measurement**with high accuracy and sensitivity but indeterminacy is still present in any**test experimental**. - When two
**related variables**are analyzed , if there is an accurate knowledge of one of these, then the**uncertainty**about the value of the other variable will be greater. - The
**momentum**and the**position**of an electron cannot be measured at the same time.

## Heisenberg’s atomic model postulates

- According to the uncertainty principle, the
**electron**acts as a**wave**and a**particle**and its trajectory cannot be known. - The
**orbit**, the place where the**electron**is most likely to be found, is not taken into**account**. But if you predict**spectral emission**lines , in neutral atoms as in ionized atoms. - He contributed to the creation of the
**electron configuration**to obtain the**quantum numbers**of electrons. This indicates the**energy level of**the electron or the distance at which it is from the nucleus, the orbital and the spin that it has on its same**axis**. - It only explains the
**electronic distribution**of the atom and the**interaction**with the electronic distribution of other atoms, but does not analyze the**structure**of the atomic nucleus or its stability.

## Contributions

The contribution of Werner Heisenberg with atomic theory model that was able to **calculate** the **behavior** with the **electrons** and **subatomic particles** forming part of an atom. His idea managed to lead to an understanding through **mathematics** about the **patterns** of electrons within an atom.

His discovery helped to have a more modern vision regarding the atom as a result scientists have the ability to **compare** the **atoms** , the **movements** of **electrons** and the **number** of **electrons** containing an atom. Surrounding the exterior of an atomic nucleus is a **cloud of electrons** , which is a name given to electrons that spread out and move widely.

## Experiment

Before Heisenberg enunciated the uncertainty principle, the **precepts** said that the variables of **linear momentum** , **position** , **angular momentum** , **time** , **energy** , for subatomic particles were defined **operationally** . In other words, they were seen as **classical ****physics** and an initial value was measured and the final value was estimated according to the pre-established procedure. All this implied the creation of a **reference system** to measure, the measuring instrument and the form of use of said instrument, according to **the scientific method** .

When performing such a test, it was impossible to obtain measurement in the **estimated value** so **theoretical** because measures are misrepresented by the **natural conditions** of the experiment and the result was not useful for the **atomic theory** .

## What problems does Heisenberg’s atomic model present?

Despite the fact that Heisenberg explained in detail the **indeterminacy of** subatomic particles and established the differences between **classical** and **quantum mechanics** , Heisenberg’s atomic model failed to establish a **single equation** to be able to give an explanation of the **randomness** of these phenomena.

Furthermore, the fact that the relationship is established through an **inequality** implies that the range of possibilities for the product of two **conjugated canonical** variables is completely indeterminate. It is for this reason that the uncertainty is in this case **inherent** to the subatomic processes which is significant.

## Importance

Heisenberg’s atomic model is very important and significant because it was a great contribution in terms of the **study** of **radiation** , the **energy** of **ionization** . It has also been essential when studying the energy released by an **atom** during a **reaction** .