Phosphorus overview history and properties :
Phosphorus overview history and properties and it’s uses are elaborated here.Less famous than, is none the less indispensable to life. Man uses this of the pnictogen family in abundance in his fertilizers, threatening the available reserves in the medium term.
- Symbol: P
- Atomic number: 15
- Electrons by : 2, 8, 5
- Atomic mass: 30.9738 u
- Most stable isotopes: 31 P stable with 16 (100%)
- Series: Nonmetals
- Group, period, block: 15 (VA), 3, p
- Density: 1.82 (white), 2.16 (red), between 2.25 and 2.69 (black)
- Point of : 44.15 ° C (white)
- Boiling point: 280.5 ° C
The discovery of phosphorus is attributed to the German Hennig Brandt, in 1669, who obtained it from the urine during his research on the philosopher’s stone. Pelletier, Lavoisier, Dulong and Davy or Berzelius studied combinations with other elements and compounds.
Its name comes from the Greek phos and pherein meaning respectivelyand wear. In fact, white phosphorus emits visible light in the dark when it is exposed to the .
Properties of phosphorus
Phosphorus can be white, red or black – these are the threeforms of phosphorus . The first two have a quadratic structure. The has a structure identical to that of . White phosphorus, tetrahedral and of formula P 4 , is a toxic body that oxidizes slowly in the air. As for red phosphorus, it forms very large , the length of which is unknown.
White phosphorus becomes red phosphorus under the effect of light; the(280 ° C) causes the inverse transformation.
Use of phosphorus
Phosphorus is often not desired inbecause it degrades the mechanical properties. Some contain them, which gives them improved machinability. White phosphorus is one of the main components of incendiary bombs. Red phosphorus is used in fireworks.
In the form of phosphate, phosphorus forms(this is its main ) and is used in the manufacture of detergents. It is also a polishing agent in toothpastes and a stabilizing additive in certain foods. Some contain phosphorus.
Thephosphoric is used as a descaling agent, acidifying agent, antirust paint medium or in biological reactors.
It is also used in fireworks,and incendiary weapons. It is used for the production of , bronze and other products. We are worried about the depletion of our resources within a century. The exploitable phosphate rocks are concentrated in few places: Morocco (more than a third of the world’s reserves), China (a little more than a quarter of the world’s reserves), South Africa, United States.
Effects of phosphorus on health
In the form of phosphate, phosphorus is essential for humans because it is present in. Phosphorus is present in the cells where it serves as a support for energy ( ). are also frequently found in plants.
However, excess phosphorus can cause kidney problems or. White phosphorus is the most dangerous form of phosphorus we know. It is extremely toxic and in many cases the exposure is fatal. In large quantities, it is (rat poison). By contact, it can burn the skin and damage other organs.
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