Inorganic chemistry

Where is Iodine on the periodic table?

Iodine characteristics on periodic table?

iodine on the periodic table

 Iodine on the periodic table?

The atomic number of iodine is 53 in the periodic table.

The iodine (Greek iodes , violet) is a chemical element symbol I, atomic number 53 (53 protons and 53 electrons) and atomic mass 126.9 u. At room temperature, the iodine is in a solid state.

 Iodine features on the periodic table

  • Item Name: Iodine (Iodum)
  • Origin of the name: Greek iodes : violet.
  • Discoverer: It was discovered by the French chemist Bernard Courtois (1777-1838).
  • Year of discovery: 1811
  • Atomic number (Z): 53
  • Atomic mass (A): 126.9045
  • Group: 17
  • Period: 5
  • Electronic configuration: [Kr] 4d105s25p5
  • Atomic radius: 140 pm
  • Aggregation Status (CNTP): Solid
  • PE: 184.3 ° C
  • PF: 113.7 ° C

Physical and chemical properties

Iodine is a solid halogen in environmental conditions and dark blue.

It is abundantly present in nature , mainly in the form of iodides and iodates. It is found in rocks, in soils with nitrates, in brine deposits, in seawater, in the form of sodium iodide, and in petroleum compounds, such as potassium iodide.

It was accidentally discovered during the soda ash production process as a result of the excess sulfuric acid added to seaweed ash, which concentrates a large amount of iodine.

This halogen also appears in the organic tissues of animals and plants and is necessary for human metabolism because it is present in the hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Although it is essential for human life, both lack and excess iodine in the body can cause health problems.

Iodine is not soluble in water, but in ethanol and other organic solvents , such as carbon disulfide, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform, and when heated it can sublimate, producing violet iodine vapor.

Pure iodine can be produced by reacting potassium iodide with copper sulfate. However, it is commercially obtained by the action of gaseous chlorine in seawater, oxidizing the iodide present in it.

Few minerals are made up of iodine, the main being lautarite and calcium iodate, which are found in nitrates in Chile.

Among the substances that contain iodine, the main ones are potassium iodide (Kl) and hydrogen iodide (Hl).

Applications of iodine on the periodic table

Iodine is used in cutting fluids for machining machines and as a raw material in the metallurgy of titanium, zirconium and other metals. Halogen lamps and cutting oils for machines contain iodine.

Iodine is also used as a contrast medium for X-rays , as a violet pigment, in the manufacture of organic reagents and in analytical laboratories.

Iodine and some iodides are used as catalysts in the dehydrogenation of butane and butene , in the formation of butadiene and in the production of polymers. Potassium iodide is used in the manufacture of high resolution photographic films.

The Iodine is an essential element for living beings . The mixture of potassium iodide, sodium iodide and sodium iodate is adopted as a feed supply for cattle. In humans, the production of the thyroxine and triiodothyronine hormones by the thyroid gland depends on iodine intake.

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that children under 5 years ingest at least 100 micrograms / day of iodine; boys up to 14 years of age, 120 to 150 micrograms / day; and pregnant or nursing women, 200 micrograms / day.

Lack of iodine causes goiter, hypertrophy of the thyroid gland and hypothyroidism.

Excess iodine is also harmful and can cause hyperthyroidism.

The iodine salts are also used as drugs to treat conditions such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, syphilis, emphysema, chronic bronchitis and arthritis.

The iodine -131 isotope is a beta radiation emitter used in the treatment of cancer by radiotherapy.

Some of the iodine compounds are medications, such as potassium iodide, which are used to prevent the absorption of radioactive material by the body in people exposed to radioactivity.

Iodine tinctures, a solution of iodine in alcohol, was applied for a long time as a disinfectant in wounds, however, recent studies have shown that its use delays tissue healing. It is also used as a water purifier.

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