Basic chemistry

Why Jabir Bin Hayyan is known as father of chemistry?

Inventions of Jabir Bin Hayyan

 

Why Jabir Bin Hayyan is known as father of chemistry?

Jabir Bin Hayyan:

Jabir bin hayyan
Jabir bin hayyan

Jabir bin hayyan is a Muslim scientist and he wrote many books on it’s inventions which are listed below:

Contents:

1.Chemistry science

2.About Jaber bin Hayyan

3.Jabir bin Hayyan Abu al-Qimma

4.Inventions of Jabir bin Hayyan

5.Scientific contributions of Jabir bin Hayyan

6.Jabir bin Hayyan and the science of distillation

7.Books by Jabir bin Hayyan

8.Theories of Jaber bin Hayyan

9.Problems faced by the inventions of Jabir bin Hayyan

10.The death of Jaber bin Hayyan chemistry

[1]Chemistry science:

Chemistry science is based on the study of atoms and chemical elements and the formation of interconnected molecules and the formation of bonds between them in the correct way, and chemists perform chemical experiments to study the change of behavior of atoms under specific and specific conditions and explain the occurrence of chemical reactions among them.

And chemistry science is of great importance in life as it is involved in the manufacture of detergents and industries Food, pharmaceutical industry, garment industry and many others.

The scientist Jaber Bin Hayyan is considered the founder of chemistry and is credited with many discoveries and inventions in the field of chemistry and its various applications, and will be in this He said talking about inventions Jabir ibn Hayyan in detail.

[2] About Jaber bin Hayyan:

The Arab-Muslim scholar Jabir bin Hayyan bin Abdullah Al-Azdi, nicknamed Abu Musa, was born in 721 AD in Tous, near Khorasan in Persia, and Jaber bin Hayan excelled in all fields such as chemistryAnd cosmology, mathematics, astrology, medicine, metallurgy, mysticism, and philosophy, and his most important work was the use of chemistry in his various works and inventions, and he was the first to do this work in history, which had a great impact in changing scientific thought around the world.

And other scholars nicknamed him the father of chemistry, and the chemical scientist Jaber bin Hayyan lived most of his life in the seventh century AD in Kufa in Iraq after he emigrated with his family to it, and he worked there pharmacist with his father, who was working as a pharmacist for the Arab Azad tribe in Yemen, and because of the large number of his travel and his family.

From a country To a country, historians have differed in the last name of it, some of them said that it is the Azadi and some of them said that it is the Kufi and some of them said it was the Sufi or the Tusi, as he had studied various sciences such as mathematics, the Holy Qur’an and other sciences that contributed to the formation of his personality and the development of his intelligence and the brilliance of his mind.

He was educated at the hands of the sixth Shi’a Imam Jaafar al-SadiqAnalytical chemistry and linguistic principles, as well as disciples at the hands of the Himyari scholar as well, and then after that began his career in the medical profession during the time of Caliph Harun al-Rashid at the time of the Abbasid Caliphate after he was a supporter of the Abbasids’ revolt against the Umayyad state, but the Umayyads eventually arrested him and his family fled to Yemen to the Azadi tribe attributed to it.

And it was mentioned by many scholars and historians in their various books such as the historian of philosophy Paul Krause, who spoke in his book about the inventions of Jabir bin Hayyan and his intelligence in his alchemical writings that are not disputed, and he has several titles such as the title of Sheikh the chemist N Great Muslims and the title of professor.

[3] Jaber bin Hayyan Abu Chemistry:

When asked about the father of chemistry, the answers to this question are multiple to include several chemists who had real and influential contributions to chemistry and the most important and most famous of them was the Muslim chemist Jaber bin Hayyan, who benefited from his sciences many scientists and people interested in chemistry and applied his scientific principles that he discovered throughout his career.

Fajtraat Geber can not be overlooked, could also be released Abu chemistry world title Antoine Lavoisier , who has authored the book elements of chemistry and assembled in a list of all detected items at the time and that helped in the emergence of many of the Other discoveries, there are also other scientists called Abu chemistry the title of the modern world such as Robert Boyle and the world as well as Yunus Berzelas world John Dalton.

[4] Jabir bin Hayyan inventions:

The inventions of Jabir ibn Hayyan are countless and countless, and they had a great impact on the development of chemistry and other sciences in which he excelled in study, analysis, and continuous effort.

He talks about topics related to alchemy or alchemy, and among the inventions of Jabir ibn Hayyan are the following:

1.

Discover the concepts of distillation, sublimation, crystallization, calcification and evaporation.

2.

The discovery of nitric , hydrochloric , tric-acid and tartaric acid.

3.

Discovering the principle that heating increases the weight and weight of the material.

4.

Discovering negative photographs by studying the effect of light on silver nitrate.

5.

The use of manganese dioxide compound in the manufacture of glass .

6.

The invention of melting gold by developing water reggae.

7.

The invention of practical applications in the alloy and rust protection

8.

The invention of golden lettering and waterproofing applications.

9.

The invention of applications for leather tanning and dyeing fabrics.

10.

The invention of the alembic device is a device used for distillation.

11.

Determine the types of basic chemical, and it is perhaps one of the most important inventions of Jabir bin Hayyan.

12.

The invention of alkali and the introduction of this term into modern chemistry.

13.

Using scale to measure chemical amounts of chemical experiments .

14.

The invention of the luminous ink that can be read in the dark.

15.

The invention of anti-combustion paper that fire cannot burn.

16.

Invention of new compounds such as lead carbonate and mercury sulfide.

[5]Scientific contributions of Jaber bin Hayyan:

The scientist Jabir bin Hayyan laid the foundation for chemistry through the use of the method of experiment, observation and the repetition of experiments, as it is not possible to reach a scientific result without performing a practical experiment, and through his knowledge that the use of specific quantities of any particular substance produces certain reactions,

The scientist Jaber Bin Hayyan identified three basic types of chemicals that are still used in the classification of chemicals to the present time and are related to the inventions of Jabir bin Hayyan.

These basic materials for chemistry are as follows:

Strong liquids:or shackles such as arsenic and ammonium chloride that are evaporated by heat.

Minerals:such as iron, gold, copper, lead, tin, or so-called minerals. Minerals are non-road: or compounds that can be made from powders such as stones.

[6]Jabir bin Hayyan and the science of distillation:

The alembic device or the ampex is one of the inventions of Jabir ibn Hayyan that made a tremendous development in the science of molecular distillation, and the meaning of the word alembic is the cup or beaker which is a chemical substance consisting of two vessels connected by a tube and used for distillation, and the molecular distillation device consists entirely of three Parts are the gourd and the fixed container within which the liquid substance to be distilled is heated by the flame of the fire and the head or cap whose shape is proportional to the gourd to hold the mounting fumes inside it, and there is also a tube oblique down slightly at the end there is a place to receive the Il distilled and assembled or where the so – called container, and the working principle of a liquid heating alembic located in the pumpkin by fire flame until it starts boiling and rising vapors, rises steamInto the alembic, it begins to cool down when it comes into contact with the walls of the tube and begins to condense.

Through the oblique tube, the condensed steam is poured into the estuary or container and collected separately.

This device is still used to produce distilled drinks. This device was described by the scientist Ibn Al-Awam in his book Al-Falah where he presented it An explanation of how rose water is distilled through the al-Nabeeq device of the scientist Jabir bin Hayyan, as mentioned by other scholars such as the al-Khwarizmi scholar in his book Science and the Al-Razi scientist in his book

The Secrets, and has been attributed to the inventions of Jabir bin Hayyan.

[7] Jabir bin Hayyan books:

Among the different and distinctive inventions of Jabir bin Hayyan was that he also had the ability to author books that include various topics not only in chemistry but also that include cosmology, medicine, magic, logic, biology, engineering, grammar, grammar, and music.

His silence in it, and among the most important books that the scholar Jabir bin Hayyan wrote:

Books Hundred and Twelve:

These books mainly talk about chemical processes . They were written in Arabic and during the Middle Ages they were translated into Latin and the books spread widely among European chemists.

The seventy books:

which were written in Arabic and some of them were then translated into Latin in the Middle Ages. This book collection includes the Book of Venus and the Book of Stones and many other various books of the world Jabir ibn Hayyan.

The ten books:

which were talking about correction, whose content included a description of some scholars such as the world Pythagoras and the scientist Socrates and logic scientists such as Aristotle and Plato and talking about them in detail and logically.

He wrote about balance:

which was mainly talking about the theory developed by the very famous Jabir ibn Hayyan, the theory of balance in nature, which is still present today.

Various books :

Auch as the Book of the Secrets of Chemistry, the Book of Mercy, the Book of Pure, the Book of Body Science, the Book of the Acquaintance, and the Book of Small Incentives, and some of the 3,000 manuscripts that are attributed to the scientist Jabir ibn Hayyan.

[8]Theories of Jaber bin Hayyan:

Historians and scholars have tried to explain all the obtained inventions of Jabir bin Hayyan written on paper here and there are books or manuscripts and collect them until they come to the reality of what the scientist Jaber bin Hayan was doing of multiple inventions,  discoveries and theories, and perhaps the most obscure theories that talk about Arithmetic and linked it to the balance of nature, where Jabir bin Hayan gave each letter of the Arabic language a numerical value and also linked it with the various elements of nature according to the arrangement of its letters.

So the scientist Jabir bin Hayan concluded that a balanced nature falls in proportion 1: 3: 5: 8, Which is always within the numbers 17 or multiples Issue 17, as there are theories more fictional nature equilibrium theory , a theory spoken by Jabir ibn Hayyan that the minerals known to consist primarily of elemental sulfur and mercury, where the world Geber to provide studies that give a detailed description of the metal and how alloys Purification and testing of them using fractional distillation, where ammonium chloride was of great importance in the inventions of the world Jaber bin Hayyan because of its tremendous ability to integrate with most of the minerals scattered at the time, this makes the minerals more soluble and significantly different, and who searches in studies and theories The scholar Jabir ibn Hayyan finds that she needs a great explanation, as it is rather vague and complex.

[9] Problems encountered by Jabir bin Hayyan inventions:

The inventions of the world, Jabir bin Hayyan, faced many problems, including the fact that historians of the nineteenth century such as Hermann Cup and Marcellin Berthalo doubt the validity of the works and inventions of the world Jabir bin Hayan attributed to him for a long time, as there was another name known Jaber, but false and unreal and attributed to the works of the world Jaber

The real bin Hayyan, and that matter caused great controversy in that time, as he attributed to the unknown Jabir al-False wrote chemistry to the scientist Jabir bin Hayyan, but the scientist Jabir bin Hayyan was widely known because he is the greatest chemist in the era of Islam, as was known to European readers as Jaber Only or the world of acces Ron CentralThis is what caused the confusion in the matter, as the works written in the Latin language in the thirteenth century were considered translations and were not attributed to the world Jabir bin Hayyan, although they are translations from the Arabic chemistry of the scientist Jabir bin Hayyan, but they were not translated directly, and there are some

The works of the scientist Jabir ibn Hayyan, such as the investigation of perfection, the book of furnaces, the book of the covenant and the book of inventing the truth, which have been translated – Chemistry historians have not been able to know whether these are the real inventions of the world Jabir ibn Hayyan or not.

The biggest problem facing Jabir bin Hayan’s inventions is the lack of confirmation that the translation from Arabic into Latin is real and not distorted and that it is true one hundred percent, or that it was attributed to the scientist Jabir bin Hayan in order to increase its importance and that whoever wrote it is a Latin translator Only no, but there is no doubt that the translators can read the Arabic language properly, but they gave those writings the western character instead of the eastern one, i.e. as if they were their product, and not the scientist Jabir bin Hayyan, and this is a clear forgery, and in 2005 CE the historian Ahmad arrived Youssef Al-Hassan to the previous Arabic texts QB The thirteenth century is already the world Geber, has criticized the hypothesis that Hassan Berthleeo taken from the theories and inventions Jabir Ibn Hayyan and attributed to the Latin civilization.

[10] The death of Jaber bin Hayyan:

The chemist Jaber bin Hayyan died in 815 AD in the city of Kufa in Iraq during the Abbasid Caliphate, at the age of 94 years he spent in research, studies and theorizing theory in the fields of science, logic, philosophy, medicine, pharmacy, and even music.

The inventions of Jabir bin Hayan had a great impact on the progress of science All are the basis on which all the scholars reached after him, which is the approved reference for Arab and European scientists, and the intensity of his connection to chemistry and the large number of studies and inventions that he carried out in this field has been called chemistry science Jaber science in relation to what it provided an invention Geber to all humanity and that served science and scientists to the current time.

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