Inorganic chemistry

What is the manufacturing process of plastic?

Steps to make plastics


What is the manufacturing process of plastic?


Manufacture of plastic:

manufacture of plastic
manufacture of plastic

Manufacture of Plastic can now be done from cellulose, starch or natural gas, but the majority of plastics are still made from petroleum products. Light on the different stages of plastic manufacturing.

1.Naphtha, the basic ingredient of plastic

Naphtha is a liquid of from refining of oil that condenses between 40 and 180 ° C. It is the raw material of plastics . Before being used by plasturgists, the naphtha must undergo a cracking operation.


Under the effect of heating (800 ° C) and then a sudden cooling (400 ° C), large molecules of hydrocarbons that make up the naphtha are being fragmented and more easily exploitable molecules.


The monomers obtained after cracking contain from 2 to 7 atoms of carbon each. Through so-called addition reactions (chain of identical monomers) or condensation (chain of different monomers), they bind together to form polymers .


At the outlet of the refinery, the polymers are in the form of granules, liquids or powders. The different plastic materials we know are obtained thanks to the addition of additives and additives. They are then shaped by molding, extrusion, injection or by thermoforming.

5.Recycling of plastic waste:

After use and collection, plastic waste is sent to treatment plants for pre-washing and sorting. They are then ground into flakes, washed, rinsed, dewatered, dried, sieved and regenerated into granules.

It should be noted that the calorific value of plastic is equivalent to that of coal or oil . Thus, a significant proportion of plastic waste currently undergoing chain energy recovery.

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