Importance of Biochemistry

Microscope Definition Parts Functions Uses and Types

What is a Microscope?

A microscope is a tool used to see very small things, which are not visible to the naked eye. In order to understand the concept, we will discuss the details of this topic the invention types, and its uses step-wise.

What is a Microscope?

what is a microscope?
The microscope lab testing

It is a tool used to see very small things which are not visible to the naked eye.

The invention of the microscope:

The invention of the microscope returns Until 400 years ago when simple devices were invented, and with the progress of time and science, they were developed and improved, and the new microscope for multiple uses was developed.


In order to produce clear and enlarged images of small objects which facilitate their study process, and also allow a clear view of the precise structures and objects for examination and analysis.

the mechanism of magnification is done through the force of magnification Magnifying, expresses the number of times the objects are enlarged relative to the dimensions, but as for the accuracy of the microscope.

it is a measure used to illustrate the smallest and most accurate details in the sample, and the precision is expressed in units of micrometers or microns,

What are the types of microscopes?

It is one of the most important tools used in biology and chemistry, so this tool allows enlarging objects and objects to look at them in detail, so it can be used to dissect small living things, such as insects, or the formation of rocks and crystals through two-dimensional or three-dimensional magnified images.

there are several different types of microscopes, as these microscopes provide different levels of magnification and production of different types of images. The types can be illustrated by mentioning the most important types, which are as follows:

  1. Optical microscope
  2. Electron microscope
  3. Contrast microscope
  4. Interference microscope
  5. Effective electronic microscope
  6. Simple optical microscope
  7. Compound optical microscope

Optical microscopy:

it uses optical lenses to enlarge the images resulting from the passage of electromagnetic waves, and this microscope is used to study single-celled microorganisms, such as small parasites, and different types of bacteria, which is the simplest and most widespread type.

There are two types of this microscope:

  • Simple optical
  • Compound optical

Simple optical microscope:

It uses only one lens to zoom in.

Compound optical microscope:

compound optical microscope
compound optical microscope

it uses a set of lenses to increase magnification.

Electron microscope:

Electron microscope
Electron microscope

This type uses beams of electrons to enlarge samples, and these electrons have a much shorter wavelength than visible light, so the accuracy is much higher, and their lenses are distinguished by electromagnetism.

Scanning Electron Microscope:

scannig electron type
Scanning electron microscope

Used for spectroscopy.

Effective electronic microscope:

It is used in biology to study the internal structure of cells; such as mitochondria and organelles.

Contrast microscope:

contrast type
contrast microscope

Used to study the details of living cells and other transparent organisms by adjusting contrast. Adjusting contrast indicates dark background to the sample, where it is easier to see light samples on darker backgrounds.

Interference microscope:

This type of contrast is used in the difference of light to study the physical and chemical properties and their impact on living cells and other biological materials. This type provides high accuracy to measure the nanometric dimensions in measuring height, which range in size from microns to millimeters.

Polarized light microscope:

polarized light type
polarized light microscope

It is used to distinguish between materials through the process of polarization and analysis of light, and this type is used in the study of geological samples to examine the nature of crystals and to analyze the details of refraction and stress in biological structures.

 Different parts of the Microscope

To show the types of the microscope, it is worth knowing the most important parts of it, as there are many different types of microscopes, and it is noticeable that they are all similar in some of the basic parts and shape, and here comes the statement of the most important parts of the microscope:

Ophthalmic lens

This is the lens through which the user looks to see the enlarged sample.

Lens tube

The tube that connects the ophthalmic lens to the objective lens, and this lens is near the samples to be seen.


Connects the lens tube to the base, and through the arm, the microscope must be carried when transported.


Provides support and stability to the microscope, and the base contains a light source.


Provides a lighting source that is highlighted on the sample for visibility.


It is the slide on which the sample to be studied is placed so that it is installed to locate the slide more accurately.

Nasal segment

This segment contains the objective lens so that the microscope user can rotate it to switch between the objective lens and adjust the magnification force.

Objective lenses

Objective lenses combine with ocular lenses in order to increase the level of magnification, and the microscope is characterized by the presence of three to four objective lenses.

Stop Adjustment Tool

This tool prevents users from moving object lenses by becoming close to the slide, causing damage to the sample or slide.

Condenser lens and eyebrow lens

The capacitor lens and eyebrow lens work together to focus the light source intensity on the slide containing the sample.

What are the uses of the microscope?

The uses differ according to the type, the method of its manufacture, and the goal that was invented for it. When asked about what are the uses of the microscope, the type of microscope must be determined first, then the question is asked about what are the uses, and their uses are the following:

Uses of Optical Microscopy:

A simple microscope that has a single lens based on enlarging the image to 250 nanometers, and can be used to study the life cycle of a cell in living cells, such as bacteria.

Uses of Digital microscope:

It is an improved type of optical microscope. Instead of seeing the sample through the lens, a type of sensor is used, such as the one in the digital camera, to obtain an image and display it on a computer screen, and is used to protect the sample from damage.

Uses of Compound microscopy:

It is a light microscope that contains two lenses and is used to give a true image of the sample where each eye can see the sample completely, which makes the image of the sample three-dimensional, which is mostly used in school laboratories, to study blood samples and see red blood cells and white blood cells.

Uses of Electron microscopy:

Where electrons are used to pass through the sample and give an image of it, it can be used to see ribosomes, viruses, and nucleic acid cords in high resolution and in a three-dimensional image of samples, as it is used to make very small electronic circuits on silicon slides.

Uses of Scanning microscope:

There are several types of scanning microscopes used in mapping samples of samples through the flow of continuous current and recording its movement through the computer and creating an image or a map of the studied sample. It is used to take pictures of the movement of atoms.

Uses of Anatomical microscope:

which magnifies the image up to 300 times larger than the original, gives three-dimensional images, and such microscopes are used to see the details of large tissue after dissection such as insects and flies.

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