The molybdenum is an element of the second series of recognized transition essentiality within certain processes . It is in the nature in amounts relatively large in comparison to other elements metal but freeform , usually is in a quantity important in the sea caves as molybdates called MoO42 and can be absorbed by animals marine when found in this form.
- Symbol : Mo
- Atomic number : 42
- Group: 6
What is molybdenum?
The molybdenum , whose symbol is Mo, is an element chemical having the atomic number 42 within the group number 6 of the periodic table . It is an essential metal used primarily in steel alloys . It is not found as a free element in nature , it is silver in color and its melting point is the sixth highestthat is known. It is used in heavy industry, specifically in parts subjected to high pressure and high temperature, such as pigments or catalysts. Although lamayoría of the compounds that make up the molybdenum have a low solubility in water, the ion molybdate MoO4-2 if it is soluble . Thanks to this , it is formed when the minerals that contain this element are in contact with oxygen and water .
- Molybdenum Characteristics
- What is its history and who discovered it
- Molybdenum Properties
- What is it for
- Where is molybdenum found
A the molybdenum is considered a metal of transition . The main attribute that this element exhibits is pure as well as having a whitish reflection and with great hardness; Also, it has one of the highest melting points of all the elements. In small amounts, it is manipulated in different steel alloys in order to fortify the corrosive components .
On the other hand, molybdenum is the only metal of the second transition series to which its marked essentiality has been recognized from a biological focus ; some enzymes have different functions, for example, in oxotransferases where it performs the function of electron transmission . Likewise, the canteen oxidase , and in the nitrogenous ones that play the role of molecular nitrogen adherence.
What is its history and who discovered it
Molybdenum, as described above, is not an element found in nature and its chemical compounds could easily be confused with other elements such as carbon or lead until the 18th century . By the year 1778 , the chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele I was able to react the known molybdenite mineral MoS2 with nitric acid, obtaining a compound with acidic properties which I name ” acidum molybdenae “.
By 1782 , Hjelm managed to isolate an impure metallic element thanks to the reduction of the previous compound by making it react with carbon . The molybdenum , although it is an excellent compound until century XIX ; it was an element taken into account very little . This changes when a German company used it as an alloying agent and was able to observe the good properties of these alloys with molybdenum. .
The industrial use of molybdenum did not begin to occur until in 1894 , Scheneider Electric , a French company specialized in heavy industry, made the first steel plate armor using this element. Despite this, its use was not generalized until the First World War , when the use of molybdenum alloys was standardized.
The properties of the chemical element molybdenum are:
- Symbol: Mo
- Atomic number : 42
- Atomic mass : 95.94 u
- Valencia: 2,3,4,5,6
- Group: 6
- Period: 5
- Block: d
- Oxidation state : +6
- Electronegativity: 1.8
- Covalent Radius: 1.45
- Ionic Radius: 0.62
- Atomic radius: 1.39
- Electronic configuration : [Kr] 4d55s1
- First ionization potential: 7.24 eV
- Atomic mass: 95.94 g / mol
- Density: 10.2 g / ml
- Boiling point : 5560ºC
- Melting point : 2610ºC
- Discoverer: Carl Wilhelm Scheele
- What year was it discovered: 1778
- Appearance: metallic gray
What is it for
Among the main functions of molybdenum are:
- Around two-thirds of the molybdenum consumed in the world has been in alloys . The use of molybdenum on an industrial scale was promoted at the beginning of the First World War , due to the strong demand for tungsten, which ended up making it very scarce and leaving the need for raw material to create resistant metals.
- It is mostly used for high strength alloys, which can withstand high temperatures and extremely high corrosion effects. These alloys are generally used in construction and engine parts for any transportation system.
- It is used as a catalyst in the oil industry. It is specifically used to combat traces of sulfur . Molybdenum has become a very important high performance catalyst with respect to the selective oxidation of propane , propylene or acrolein in acrylic acid.
- 99Mo is used in the nuclear isotope industry .
- It is used within pigment systems as it provides an orange color for household paints , hair dyes , polyurethane and compounds created from rubber .
- It is also used in specific electronic applications , as it is in the metal layers that serve as a conductor in transistors , with Thin Film Transistor being the one that uses them the most.
Where is molybdenum found
The main source of origin for molybdenum is a mineral called molybdenite abbreviated as MoS2 . In turn, it can also be extracted from other minerals, such as wulfenite which is abbreviated as PbMoO4 and powellite abbreviated as CaMoO4. Molybdenum is obtained from mining extractions of its minerals and as a tertiary product of copper mining , and the latter being named its most commercial form.