What is Nucleic Acid?
Nucleic acid is an essential component of every living cell. They are genera long chain molecules made up of nucleotides. Each nucleotide consists of three components, a nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group.
Types of nucleic acid:
- Deoxy Ribonucleic acid DNA
- Ribonucleic acid RNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA:
DNA consists of Deoxy sugar. Its structure was discovered by J. Watson and F. Crick in 1953. It is a long double-stranded molecule consisting of two chains wrapped around each other in a double helix form.
DNA A permanent storage:
For genetic information, DNA is the permanent storage place in the nucleus of a cell. It carries and stores all genetic information of the cell. It passes this information as instructions from generation to generation on how to synthesize particular proteins from amino acids.
Instructions are the genetic code of life:
These instructions are the genetic code of life. They determine whether an organism is a man or a tree or a donkey and whether a cell is a nerve cell or a muscle cell. When an error occurs in any of the steps involved in expressing the genetic information contained in DNA a genetic disease may occur. DNA carries genes that control the synthesis Of RNA and passes the genetic information to RNA at the proper time.
The sequence of the nitrogenous base in DNA
The sequence of the nitrogenous bases in DNA determines the protein development in new cells. The function of the double helix formation of DNA is to ensure that no disorder takes place.
Ribonucleic acid RNA:
It consists of ribose sugar. It is a single-stranded molecule. It is responsible for putting the genetic information to work in the cell to build proteins. Its role is as a messenger.
Synthesis of RNA:
The shyntesis of RNA is carried out by DNA to transmit genetic information. RNA is then responsible for directing the synthesis of the new protein.
Importance of nucleic acid:
Vital for cell functioning:
Nucleic acids are vital for cell functioning, i. e for life. They are responsible for keeping track of hereditary information in a cell. They function together. DNA store genetic information and pass it to RNA, then RNA reads, decode, and uses the given information to synthesize new protein. Thus they control the information that makes every cell and consequently every organism.
Error cause genetic disease:
DNA carries genes. The error introduced into the genes cause genetic disease. These errors synthesized faulty RNA, which synthesized faulty proteins that do not function the way they are supposed to.