What type of element is silver?
Silver element :
The silver is a chemical element of group 11 (transition metals) belonging to the fifth period of the periodic table.
Silver has an external electron in addition to a full level d. It has a cubic crystalline structure with a compact container. It conducts electricity and heat well, and tends to be unreactive. The simple ion that can be found in the solution (in addition to complex ions) is Ag2 +.
features of silver
- Item Name: Silver (Argentum)
- Origin of the name: The symbol comes from the Latin word argentum: silver (money).
- Discoverer: Known since ancient times.
- Year of discovery: unknown.
- Atomic number (Z): 47
- Atomic mass (A): 107.8682
- Group: 11
- Period: 5
- Electronic configuration: [Kr] 4d105s2.
- Atomic radius: 160 pm
- Aggregation status of simple substance (CNTP): solid
- PE (single substance): 2162 ° C
- PF (single substance): 961.78 ° C
Physical and chemical properties
Silver is a precious silver white metal, shiny and ductile . The metal is malleable, easy to handle chemically and mechanically and, in its metallic form, has great electrical and thermal conductivity . It is not considered toxic in metallic form, but some of its salts are poisonous.
It is stable in air and water, but contact with hydrogen sulfide (H2S), present in the air, produces a layer of silver sulfide, which causes the metal to lose its shine and darken. Silver also changes color in contact with ozone and sulfur.
Silver is known since ancient times. It is considered the second most noble metal. It was called argentum by the Romans and from there comes its chemical symbol.
Silver is found in metallic form on rocky surfaces or in veins and also in minerals such as argentite, silvanite, bromargirite and cerargirite.
It can be obtained industrially as a byproduct of the copper, lead and gold extraction process, but this silver is almost always impure.
In the laboratory, it can be obtained by reacting a solution of silver nitrate with metallic copper.
The main substances that contain silver are silver nitrate (AgN03) and silver halides AgCI, AgBr and Agl.
Applications of silver :
Since ancient times, silver has been used in the production of decorative pieces and jewelry . Some utensils and ornaments were found in the ancient tombs of Chaldea, Mesopotamia, Egypt, China, Persia and Greece.
In ancient times, metal was used as a monetary system in various civilizations . Today, a very small percentage of silver is used in coin minting. In turn, jewelry pieces, such as rings, medals and chains, are widely used and valued. In both coining and jewelry, silver is used as an alloy in metals such as copper.
Silver is used as a component in the formation of other alloys that are used in dentistry, for the production of dental amalgams; in the manufacture of welding, electrical contacts, batteries and radiators, for the automotive industry, and in the production of musical instruments. The chemical industry uses metallic silver as a catalyst for various reactions, such as the oxidation of ethanol.
Silver was already used in mirrors, which were made by placing a small film of silver on a glass surface. Today, for this purpose, this metal has been replaced by aluminum.
Many silver substances have already been used in medicine to prevent infections. Silver nitrate is a raw material for obtaining other substances and used as a catalyst, in batteries and battery components and in conventional photography.
In medicine, molten silver nitrate with potassium nitrate is used in the cauterization of spongy tissues and in the preparation of pharmaceutical products. Silver iodide has been used in cloud formation to produce rain.
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