In chemistry , one of the important substances is acid . This is a type of chemical compound that has the ability to release hydrogen ions when it is in an aqueous solution. There are several types of acids, one of them is strong acid, which are characterized by having the ability to release these ions more quickly and easily .
What is a strong acid?
A strong acid is that type of chemical species that has the great ability to lose an H + proton. Is an acid which is fully dissociated or ionized when in a solution -type aqueous .
- Characteristics of strong acid
- How to determine the strength of an acid
- How it differs from a concentrated acid
- Importance of strong acid
- What is the strongest acid in the world
- Other examples of strong acids
Characteristics of strong acid
Among the most notable characteristics that can be found in a strong acid are the following:
- Strong acids have a small logarithmic constant (pKa) and a larger acid dissociation constant (Ka).
- They are characterized by being very corrosive .
- As its dissociation capacity decreases, the concentration of the acid increases .
- They have hydrogen atoms that are very loosely bound and that is why the molecules separate very easily when they are in solution.
- When they are in an aqueous solution, they can lose most or all of their hydrogen atoms .
- They have the ability to neutralize themselves when in contact with water, thus producing a stable salt .
How to determine the strength of an acid
In order to determine the strength of an acid, it is necessary to understand that this will depend on the number of hydrogen atoms that have the ability to dissociate and to form hydrogen ions . In order to determine the strength of an acid, several criteria must be taken into account, which are:
- Atomic radius: as the radius of the atom increases, so does the acidity of acid.
- Electronegativity : in this regard, the more electronegative a conjugate base that is located in the same period of the periodic table is, the more acidic it can become.
- Electric charge : the acidity of an element can become higher when the charge of the atom is more positive.
- Equilibrium : at the moment in which an acid manages to disassociate itself, it can reach equilibrium with its conjugate base. In the case of strong acids, the balance strongly benefits the product.
- Solvent : In most applications, strong acids are related to water when it functions as a solvent. However, acidity and basicity have significance in the non-aqueous solvent.
How it differs from a concentrated acid
The difference is that a strong acid can decompose almost completely when it is in a clear solution , this because it gains electrons . A concentrated acid, on the other hand, has a certain concentration limit in water and does not mix with other components that could lead to a reduction in its concentration. Concentrated acid is that which is in its maximum concentration in water.
Importance of strong acid
Strong acids are of special importance mainly in the field of industry . They are necessary to be able to manufacture different types of cleaning products and are even used in the production of steel . Some of them also have a fundamental role in the manufacture of dyes , fertilizers and even in the manufacture of explosives . They are the primary medium for creating household and drain cleaners . It is also be the main component in the production of fuel for rockets .
What is the strongest acid in the world
The strongest acid in the world is a super acid and goes by the name fluoro antimonic . It has a chemical formula of HSbF6 and can be obtained by mixing hydrogen fluoride with antimony pentafluoride . It is a strong acid that has the ability to decompose very quickly and explosively when it comes into contact with water, for this reason it can only be used in hydrofluoric acid solutions .
It can evolve forming vapors that turn out to be highly toxic and when the temperature increases it manages to decompose and produce hydrogen fluoride gas . This acid is much stronger than sulfuric acid, it can even dissolve glass. Despite being extremely dangerous and toxic, it is used in the field of chemical and organic engineering in order to be able to protonate organic compounds . It is also used as a type of catalyst for alkylations and acylations in the petrochemical field.
Other examples of strong acids
In the field of chemistry it is possible to find the following examples of strong acids:
- Hydrochloric acid (which has the chemical formula HCl)
- Hydrobromic acid (its chemical formula is HBr)
- Hydrodic acid or hydriodic acid (has the chemical formula HI)
- Sulfuric acid (with its chemical formula H2SO4)
- Nitric acid (chemical formula HNO3)
- Chloric acid (whose chemical formula is HClO3)
- Perchloric acid (chemical formula HClO4)
As for the examples, it is important to mention that there are also super strong acids, and some examples of them are:
- Fluoro antimonic acid
- Fluorosulfonic acid
- Magic acid