Rutherford Bohr model of the atom:
Rutherford bohr model of the atom is listed here.The atomic model of Rutherford-Bohr represents the atom by indicating the number of protons in the nucleus as well as the number of electrons in each of the electron layers.
The electrons circulate within well defined areas called electron shells. There is a maximum number of electrons that can be placed on the different electronic layers.
To distribute the electrons, the following four rules must be respected:
- The first layer contains a maximum of two electrons.
- The layers closest to the core must be completely filled before proceeding to the next layers.
- Each layer, except for the first, must contain a maximum of eight electrons up to the atomic number 20.
- The last electronic layer should never have more than eight electrons.
Oxygen has eight electrons. Its electronic distribution will be:
O: 2e – , 6th –
Argon has 18 electrons. Its electronic distribution will therefore be:
Ar: 2nd – , 8th – , 8th –
The representation of an atom using the atomic model of Rutherford-Bohr
To represent the atomic model of Rutherford-Bohr, it is necessary to represent the electrons and the protons at their respective positions and respecting the number of each of the particles.
- The number of protons is determined by the atomic number (Z) of the atom to be represented.
- The number of electrons in a neutral atom is equal to the number of protons. It is therefore also equivalent to the atomic number.
- The electrons must be distributed according to the rules mentioned above.
To represent the atomic model of Rutherford-Bohr for boron, it is necessary to find the atomic number of the element. The atomic number of boron is 5, which means that boron has five protons and five electrons. The five protons will be positioned in the nucleus.
To place the electrons, it is first necessary to place the maximum number of electrons on the first layer (two electrons). The remaining electrons must then be placed on the second and last electronic layer.
It is possible to check if the electrons have been correctly placed on the electronic layers by using the periodic table . The number of the period represents the number of electronic layers that the atom should have. In the case above, boron is located in the second period of the periodic table, which means that it must have two electronic layers.
In addition, the number of the family makes it possible to determine the number of valence electrons , ie the number of electrons located on the last electronic layer. Since boron is located in the third column (III) of the periodic table, it must have three electrons on the last electron layer.
If the atom has many electrons, we can use the same technique, but instead of drawing each of the electrons, we indicate the number of electrons found on each of the electronic layers.
To represent the atomic model of Rutherford-Bohr for sulfur, it is necessary to find the atomic number of the element. The atomic number of sulfur is 16, which means that sulfur has 16 protons (which will be placed in the nucleus) and 16 electrons.
To place the electrons, you first have to put the maximum number of electrons in the first layer (two electrons). Since there are more than eight electrons to be placed, it will also be necessary to place the maximum number of electrons on the second electron layer and then place the remaining electrons in the last electron layer.
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