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What is tranexamic acid?

Tranexamic acid

In the broad field of medicine there are a lot of important drugs, a group of them dedicated specifically to avoid the heavy bleeding . These drugs are known as antifibrinolytics and help promote and improve blood clotting. Among them we find tranexamic acid , an important drug that can actually save lives.

Tranexamic acid What is it, characteristics, structure, properties, benefits 

What is tranexamic acid?

The tranexamic acid is a type of chemical used in the medical field with the main objective to neutralize the fibrinolysis by blocking plasmin . It is a substance that belongs to the group of antifibrinolytics .

  • Tranexamic acid characteristics
  • Structure
  • Formula
  • Nomenclature
  • Tranexamic acid physical properties
  • Chemical properties
  • Obtaining
  • What is tranexamic acid for
  • How is it taken
  • Tranexamic acid benefits
  • Risks

Tranexamic acid characteristics

Among its main characteristics are the following:

  • It is a type of synthetic substance that comes from lysine.
  • It is metabolized through the liver and is discharged through the kidneys and urinary system .
  • In its pharmaceutical presentation it can be found in the form of coated tablets and injectable solutions .
  • It belongs to the group of medicines known as antifibrinolytics .
  • It is used in the medical field mainly to stop profuse bleeding in women with menstrual problems.

Structure

The chemical structure of tranexamic acid is as follows:

Tranexamic acid What is it, characteristics, structure, properties, benefits

Formula

Its empirical formula is the following: C8H15NO2

Nomenclature

According to the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), its nomenclature is trans-4- (aminomethyl) -cyclohexanecarboxylic acid although it can also be found as cyklokapron and amchafibrin .

Tranexamic acid physical properties

Its main physical properties are mentioned below:

  • It is a crystalline powder of white color.
  • It has no smell whatsoever .
  • It has a melting point of> 300 ° C.
  • It is slightly soluble when in the presence of water.
  • It has a molecular weight of 157.2.
  • In aqueous solution it has a pH of 6.5 to 8 .

Chemical properties

With regard to chemical properties, the most important are the following:

  • It is a chemical that has good reactivity .
  • It is chemically stable .
  • It can decompose when in the presence of high temperatures.
  • Contact with stronger oxidants can produce dangerous reactions .

Obtaining

Tranexamic acid is a man-made form of an amino acid (protein) called lysine , in other words, it can be obtained in chemical laboratories through a number of different processes. One of these processes can be by starting from acetamidomethylbenzoic acid when it is heated to approximately 120-200 ° C under a pressure of 40-100 atm for about 8-16 hours.

It can also be manufactured from P-aminomethylbenzoic acid by means of hydrogenation at a temperature of 10-250 ° C under hydrogen pressure of approximately 10-200 atm. Finally, it can also create from acid P-aminomethylbenzoic with catalyst of metal ruthenium in the presence of a hydrogen pressure of 50-200 Kg / cm and a temperature of 90-200 ° C. It is important to mention that for all these manufacturing processes exposure to high temperatures and high pressures is necessary .

What is tranexamic acid for?

The main use that is given to tranexamic acid is to be able to stop abundant and uncontrolled bleeding in women who have problems during the menstruation cycle because it works by improving blood clotting, it is also the ideal medicine when bleeding problems occur during postpartum .

It is a drug that can also be used in patients suffering from hemophilia who must undergo surgery for some reason . It works well as a treatment for hereditary angioneurotic edema and in cases of bleeding caused by a thrombolytic .

Recently, this acid has begun to be used in the fields of beauty , dermatology and aesthetic medicine as experts have discovered that, in addition to stopping bleeding, it also has the ability to reduce spots on the skin caused by exposure to the sun. , freckles and chloasma among others.

How is it taken

The recommended dose of this medicine is set at 20 mg / kilogram / day. When taken orally , it can be, following the medical indication, in doses of 15 to 25 mg / kilogram / day every 6 or 8 hours . When the drug is administered intravenously, it can be indicated in doses of 10-15 mg / kilogram / day every 6 or 8 hours . The way in which this medicine is taken should be established only by a doctor and in the case of surgeries, the dose will be established by the surgeons in charge and staff.

In cases of metrorrhagia , heavy bleeding during menstruation, a low dose of 1 gram every 8 hours for four days is usually recommended . In case of very heavy bleeding, this dose could be increased following the doctor’s prescription up to 4 grams per day . In addition, the drug can be taken orally or parenterally.

Tranexamic acid benefits

Its main benefit implies that heavy and heavy bleeding can be stopped as the drug has the ability to break down the heavy clots that occur during bleeding. It is very beneficial when it is necessary to stop a bleeding that has been caused by surgeries , menorrhagia , severe epistaxis or severe nosebleeds , cervical surgeries , eye bleeds and bleeding after tooth extraction in patients suffering from hemophilia .

Another of its benefits that has been discovered very recently is the great benefit it provides in reducing spots on the skin, mainly melasmas, which can be caused by a series of different factors. In the field of dermatology, it is being used in combination with other types of procedures, producing very positive effects in the field.

Risks

The main risks that exist with the use of tranexamic acid are the following:

  • Its use can cause some side effects including vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, hypotension, general malaise , loss of consciousness when administered intravenously at a rapid rate, venous thrombosis and seizures.
  • This acid can be easily filtered through breast milk and, although data on its effects on children are not yet available, its use should be carefully evaluated by the health professional.
  • There is a risk that, in the case of blood clots , they can become dangerously potent.
  • Its use can cause some types of visual disturbances such as blurred vision, alterations in color perception and visual impairment.

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