In fact, it was so unstable at the dawn of its discovery that the IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) did not give a definite date for the event at the time. For this reason, its existence as a chemical element was not made official and it remained in the dark.
Its chemical symbol is Tf, the atomic mass is 270 g / mol, it has a Z equal to 113 and a valence configuration [Rn] 5f 14 6d 10 7s 2 7p 1 . Additionally, the quantum numbers of its differential electron are (7, 1, -1, +1/2). The image above shows the Bohr model for the tusfrano atom.
Discovery of the tusfrano and officialization of the nihonium
A team of scientists at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in the United States, and a group from Dubna, Russia, were the ones who discovered tusfrano. This finding happened between 2003 and 2004.
On the other hand, researchers from the Riken Laboratory, Japan, managed to synthesize it, being the first synthetic element produced in that country.
It was derived from the radioactive decay of element 115 (unumpentium, Uup), in the same way that actinides are produced from the decay of uranium.
Before its official acceptance as a new element, the IUPAC provisionally named it a ununtrium (Uut). Ununtrium ( Ununtrium , in English) means (one, one, three); that is, 113, which is its atomic number written in units.
Why thallium and indium? Because they are the elements of group 13 closest to it and, therefore, it should share some physicochemical similarity with them.
Officially, it is accepted that it comes from the radioactive decay of element 115 (moscovio), having the name Nihonium, with the chemical symbol for Nh.
“Nihon” is a term used to designate Japan, thus presenting its name on the periodic table.
In the periodic tables prior to 2017, tusfrano (Tf) and unumpentium (Uup) appear. However, in the vast majority of the earlier periodic tables the ununtrium replaces the tusfrano.
Currently, Nihonium occupies the place of Tusfrano in the periodic table, and Muscovium also replaces Unumpentium. These new elements complete period 7 with tenesin (Ts) and oganesón (Og).
As one descends through group 13 of the periodic table, the earth family (boron, aluminum, gallium, indium, thallium and tusphran), the metallic character of the elements increases.
Thus, tusfrano is the element of group 13 with the greatest metallic character. Its voluminous atoms must adopt some of the possible crystalline structures, among which are: bcc, ccp, hcp and others.
Which one of these? This information is not yet available. However, a conjecture would be to assume a not very compact structure and a unit cell with a larger volume than the cubic one.
Because it is an elusive and radioactive element, many of its properties are predicted and therefore unofficial.
16 Kg / m 3
Enthalpy of vaporization
130 kJ / mol.
+1, +3 and +5 (like the rest of the elements of group 13).
From the rest of their properties, it can be expected that they show behaviors similar to those of heavy or transition metals.
Given its characteristics, industrial or commercial applications are null, so it is only used for scientific research .
In the future science and technology may reap some newly revealed benefits. Perhaps, for extreme and unstable elements such as nihonium, its possible uses also fall into extreme and unstable scenarios for the present times.
Furthermore, its effects on health and the environment have not yet been studied due to its limited life span. For this reason, any possible application in medicine or the degree of toxicity is unknown.