Organic chemistry

Types of structural isomerism

Types of structural isomerism
Types of structural isomerism

What are the Types of structural isomerism? What are Isomers with examples? Isomers are common among organic compounds. Isomers have the same set of atoms but different molecular structures. There are structural and spatial isomerism. In structural isomerism, isomers have different order of connection of atoms in a molecule. With spatial isomerism, the isomers are identical in this sense, but they have the same atoms or groups arranged differently in space.

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There are the following types of structural isomerism.

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Isomerism of the carbon skeleton , when the molecules of isomers differ in the order of bonds between carbon atoms. For example, butane (CH 3 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 3 ) and isobutane (CH 3 -CH (CH 3 ) -CH 3 , the group in brackets is connected to the second carbon atom, that is, it has three bonds with others carbon atoms). That is, in this case, the substances differ in the structure of the carbon skeleton. The more carbon atoms in the skeleton of a compound, the more such isomers it can have.

Multiple bond position isomerism , when a double or triple bond between the carbon atoms of one isomer differs in location from the same bond in the other isomer. For example, butene-1 (CH 2 =CH-CH 2 -CH 3 ) and butene-2 ​​(CH 3 -CH=CH-CH 3 ).

Functional group position isomerism . A functional group is a group of atoms that determines whether a substance belongs to a class of organic compounds. For example, the presence of the -OH group in the molecule indicates that this compound belongs to alcohols. So, according to the position of the functional group, there are two isomers of butanol – this is butanol-1 (CH 2 (OH) -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 3 ) and butanol-2 (CH 3 -CH (OH) -CH 2 -CH 3 ).

Interclass isomerism , when isomers belong to different classes of organic compounds, despite the fact that they have the same set of atoms. For example, ethanol (CH 3 -CH 2 -OH) refers to alcohols, and dimethyl ether (CH 3 -O-CH 3 ) refers to ethers. If you write the molecular formulas of these substances, they are identical: C 2 H 6 O. But these are completely different organic substances with different properties.

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