Importance of Biochemistry

Viruses Definition Examples Types Structure and Classification

Viruses prevention?

Viruses definition classification and prevention are discussed here in detail by the way you can clear your mind so we will start with viruses definition.

Viruses definition:

virus Structure
virus structure

Viruses are microscopic parasites that are much smaller than bacteria and do not have the ability to reproduce and grow outside the host body.

And are often the cause of transmission of infection to the human body. 2014 in West Africa, and the flu virus swine in most countries of the world, and contain viruses like other cells in living organisms on DNA DNA or RNA RNA, but they lack the ability to read the information contained in these nucleic acids and deal with them independently.

And is the role of the Sassi of the virus genome in the delivery of DNA or RNA into the host cell so that they can express those acids through the host body, and different forms of viruses and different kinds of sizes, and will talk in this article about the types of viruses.

What are the Types of Viruses?

The classification of types of viruses depends on the components of the virus, its shape, the DNA contained inside it, or the organ that attacks it in the animal or human body.

Inflammatory such as chickenpox, as well as latent infections that appear and disappear at spaced intervals, such as cold sores and shingles, as well as the human papillomavirus ( HPV ), which causes warts and skin lesions, and there, are species that affect the nervous system or pronation device Or the circulatory system, and will be detailed types of viruses as follows:

[1] Digestive viruses:

It is a type of virus that causes the digestive system to contract a viral infection, and usually leads to a condition called gastroenteritis which is an infectious disease, which is also called stomach flu, and it includes symptoms of colic, diarrhea, and vomiting, and these viruses are present in the stool when emptying the intestine.

The infection can be transmitted to others through eating contaminated food or drinking contaminated water with that stool.

The infection can also be transmitted by sharing personal tools or items with a person infected with the virus, and the condition often heals on its own within a day or two at least. Impact, and can help to drink plenty of water and fluids to accelerate healing.

[2] Viruses that cause a rash:

Viruses that cause a rash
Viruses that cause rash

There are some types of viruses that can cause a rash when a person is infected with it, in addition to additional specific symptoms for each type, and these viruses include many types, such as the measles virus which is very infectious, as well as rubella, smallpox, shingles, pink rash, virus infection Chikungunya also,

Many of these viruses are usually transmitted to other people through exposure to respiratory secretions that come out with a cough or sneeze in a person who has the virus, and other types of these viruses, such as smallpox, can be transmitted through contact with the accumulated fluids in P.

In skin lesions, shingles occur only in people who have had chickenpox at one time, while the chikungunya virus is transmitted when exposed to the bite of the virus-carrying mosquitoes and cannot be transmitted from person to person.

Treatment of viral diseases:

caused by these viruses focuses on relieving symptoms and signs that appear on the patient, as fever-reducing drugs can be given to relieve fever, such as acetaminophen, which can relieve some of the most troublesome symptoms.

The doctor may prescribe antiviral medications, such as acyclovir, for smallpox cases Water, or shingles.

Some types of these viruses, such as rubella, chickenpox, and shingles, can be prevented by giving the appropriate vaccination or vaccine, and the risk of chikungunya virus infection can be reduced by protecting the body from the bites of dead mosquitoes.

[3] Skin viruses:

Skin viruses
Skin viruses

Other types of viruses are those called skin viruses, the infection of which leads to the formation of pests or papules on the surface of the skin.

In many cases, these lesions or papules can remain for a long time, and then they can disappear and reappear after disappearance For a period of time, this varies from person to person depending on many factors.

Examples of these viruses are those that cause warts, including genital warts and cause herpes and genital herpes, as well as contagious molluscum.

[4] Viruses that infect the nervous system:

nervous system Infection
nervous system Infection

In addition to the previous types of viruses, there are types of them that can affect the nervous system in the human body, meaning that they can reach the brain and the surrounding tissues.

This may lead to infection with viral neurological diseases, so a person has a set of symptoms and signs, including fever and confusion Mental drowsiness, frequent episodes of epileptic seizures, and a person may have coordination disorders.

Examples of viral neurological diseases include polio, viral meningitis, viral encephalitis, and rabies as well.

[5] Respiratory viruses:

Respiratory viruses
Respiratory viruses

The most common pathogens among humans are respiratory viruses, which have caused many people to have severe respiratory illnesses, and the death rate has been high throughout the world, especially among children, where about a fifth of all child deaths in all worldwide acute respiratory injury infection.

Particularly in poor communities from the tropics, where it can be attributed cases of inflammation of respiratory acute that lead to death significantly higher than those ratios in the temperate regions of the world, there are several viruses T.

Vash commonly infect humans in all age groups and are known to be adapted effectively from one person to another transition, including those viruses that have emerged recently, which is a real threat to public health, such as the SARS virus coronary SARS-CoV, the avian influenza virus H5N1, has spread the virus stoppedSARS since 2003, the H5N1 avian influenza virus has caused limited epidemics of human infections.

Symptoms of respiratory viruses:

Mimic is a common sign and symptom of the upper respiratory tract, but these viruses are known to pass from the upper respiratory tract to the lower respiratory tract, causing bronchitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia, and respiratory viruses are detected.

Frequently in infants and children with respiratory signs and symptoms, including children who have been hospitalized with a diagnosis of pneumonia, the results of some studies indicate that respiratory viruses can cause wheezing, and worsen asthma in a severe way Head by hitting and inflammation of the lower airway.

[6] Viruses infecting the liver:

liver Infection diagram
liver Infection diagram

It is a type of virus that infects the liver in the human body, so there are at least five viruses that cause inflammation in the liver, and the three most common are hepatitis A, B, and C, and some can lead to serious life-threatening complications and each type of these diseases.

Different properties, according to the method of transmission, but the symptoms tend to be similar in almost all types, and each type will be detailed as follows:

[a] Viral hepatitis A

The prevalence of this type of hepatitis was significant in the past, but a decrease in the number of cases has been observed over the past twenty years, largely due to the availability of appropriate vaccines.

But epidemics can occur, and hepatitis A is usually transmitted through eating food or water contaminated with the virus, and this is common in many countries, especially those that lack effective sanitation systems, and symptoms of it include jaundice, abdominal pain, feeling sick, and lack of appetite.

However, symptoms may not appear in some people at all, especially in children who are less than 6 years old, Usually full recovery occurs within a few weeks to several months, and then, have those persons immunity from it, and in rare cases can be hepatitis A fatal, and fortunately, there are safe vaccines and effectively protect against infection of the virus.

[b] Hepatitis B virus

Viral hepatitis B diagram
Viral hepatitis B diagram

Hepatitis B infection is usually acute or short-term, but it can become especially chronic in children, as there are long-term conditions such as liver cancer or cirrhosis, which can lead to complications affecting 15-25% of people with chronic hepatitis.

The virus can be transmitted through sex without protection or by sharing needles or personal items such as a toothbrush or shaver, and it may be transmitted when applying tattoos with unsterile instruments contaminated with the virus.

When accidental skin pricking with medical equipment, it may be transmitted during lactation Natural if the mother is pregnant with Virus, and the number of infected people has decreased due to a safe and effective vaccine.

[c] Viral hepatitis C.

Viral hepatitis C

It is a medical condition that a person develops when he travels to blood through another infected blood, usually by sharing needles or other equipment when taking drugs, and other people who may be at risk of transmission are the health care professionals who deal with sharp objects and children whose mothers are infected with the virus.

The infection may be short-term, but the infection can be chronic and long-term at an average of 85% of sick people, and no symptoms may appear on the patient, and about half of the infected people are unaware of their infection, and they may transmit the disease without realizing it, and they may get rid of The virus.

Without any therapeutic intervention in about 25% of people, it can remain in the body and become chronic in other people, and patients may undergo a treatment plan that lasts for several weeks.

[7] Viruses that infect the circulatory system:

It is a type of virus that attacks the circulatory system in the human body and causes viral hemorrhagic fever, which is a group of diseases caused by four families of viruses, and includes the Ebola, Marburg, Lhasa, and yellow fever viruses, and the viral hemorrhagic fever is characterized as affecting.

Many organs of the body, and the blood vessels in it, and affect the ability of the body to control its functions, and in fact, some types of these viruses cause a mild disease with possible symptoms.

But others, such as EbolaOr Marburg, cause severe disease, which may lead to death, and these viruses have spread all over the world, and the spread of the disease associated with it is influenced by the regions in which animals live.

For example, Lassa fever is limited to rural areas in West Africa where the rats are Mice are carriers and carriers of the virus, and the risk of travelers is usually low, but it is important to avoid visiting outbreaks of these diseases.

Viruses prevention:

After identifying the types of viruses, it is necessary to talk about ways to prevent infection and limit their spread, and this is done through the implementation of health measures such as:

  • Conducting effective sanitation facilities
  • Effective disposal of waste,
  • Providing clean water as well as attention to personal hygiene,
  • One of the advanced methods to prevent virus infection is active immunization by providing vaccines, which are preparations containing antigens are stirring certain immune cells in the body to form antibodies and thus immune activation against those viruses, and this method is useful in preventing epidemics Walsh Iah caused by viruses of infectious acute.

[7] Examples of the effectiveness of vaccines

In preventing viral diseases, the smallpox vaccine, caused by a virus that produces diseases, was discovered around the world at the same time, and an active smallpox vaccine was discovered in 1796 with the aim of preventing infection,

WHO organization:

In 1980 it was announced by The World Health Organization has said that the disease has been eradicated.

While developing other vaccines is more difficult, as in the case of rabies, which is a fatal viral disease, where the rabies virus is transmitted through exposure to bites of dogs and other wild and domestic animals, and the difficulty of finding a single vaccine is in a variety.

Wild animals around the world, and there are some types of viruses that have the ability to resist the inhibition of antibodies acquired by previous infection or previous vaccination, such as the influenza virus.

The reason for this is due to viral mutations that produce minor changes in the antigens every year, and the main shifts in antigens are almost every 10 years.

Fortunately, there are many partially effective current vaccines that are recommended for people at high risk, such as the elderly and those who suffer from Chronic respiratory or circulatory diseases.

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