The ketones are organic compounds having the carbonyl group (C = O) at a secondary carbon chain, thus presenting between two carbons.
They are classified according to the amount of these carbonyls. When there is only one group, it is called monoketone , when there are two, we call it dicetone , and when there are three, we call it tricetone .
When the carbon-linked radicals that the carbonyl group contains are the same, we call it symmetric ketone, and when they are different, we call it asymmetric ketone.
Sources and properties of Ketones :
When it comes to up to ten carbon atoms, ketones with smaller chains are in a liquid state and are less dense than water when they are in environmental conditions. In general, in other forms, they are in solid form.
Propanone is a ketone completely soluble in water, and liquid ketones are partially soluble , while solids are insoluble . In addition, the solubility of ketones in water, due to the greater polarity of carbonyl, which establishes hydrogen bonds, is greater than that of aldehydes.
When the chains are smaller, ketones have a pleasant smell and are found in essential oils extracted from flowers and fruits used in the production of perfumes. Normally they are used as raw material for paint solvents, varnishes, enamels, in addition to silk making and medicines.
Importance of ketones:
Propanone, popularly known as acetone, is the most important in the market and is used to remove nail polishes . There are several ways to obtain ketones in the laboratory, but the most common is the oxidation of secondary alcohols.
Industrially, many of the essential oils extracted from flowers and fruits and used in the production of perfumes are ketone compounds. They are also used in the extraction of fat from seeds such as sunflower and peanuts.
Ketones can also be used to extract cocaine from the coca leaf, which makes its use restricted and controlled by federal police agencies.