Inorganic chemistry

What are salts in chemistry?

The Salts in Chemistry

Salt is an ionic compound formed by the union of ions and cations through ionic bonds. salts in chemistry

The salts are products of acid-base reactions or Neutralization (acid + base → salt + water) where the base provides the cation and the acid the anion : HCl  + NaOH →  NaCl   + H 2 O
Although less frequent, they can also be obtained as a product of the following reactions:

  • Acid + Metal : H 2 SO 4 + Zn → Zn SO 4 + H 2
  • Base + Base : Na 2 SO 4 +BaCl 2 → Ba SO 4 + 2 Na CI
  • Acid + Oxide salts in chemistry

Must Read: Examples of salts in chemistry

General Properties of Salts

  • They are ionic compounds formed by ionic bonds
  • Form crystals
  • Soluble in water (since the water is polar, the ions and cations of the salt separate)
  • High boiling and melting points
  • Low hardness and compressibility
  • They are conductive of electricity dissolved in water or molten

Types of salts 

  • According to the Number of Elements:
    • Binary salts : (metal + non-metal ) → NaCl, PbS, PbS 2 , FeCl 2 , FeCl 3 , CaBr 2 , CoS, Co 2 S 3
    • Ternary salts (metal + nonmetal + oxygen) → Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , Al (ClO 4 ) 3 , PbSe O 3 , NiSe O 3
    • Quaternary salts → NaHCO 3 , NH 4 NO 2 , NaHCO 3 , K 2 HPO 4 salts in chemistry
  • According to the Origin of Training:
    • Neutral salts : result of replacing all the H + of the acid with a metal: salts in chemistry
      • H Cl + NaOH → NaCl + H 2 O
      • 2 SO4+ 2 Fe (OH)3  → Fe 2 (S O 4 ) 3  + 6 H 2 O
    • Acid salts : result of partially replacing the H + of the acid with a metal:
      • 2 SO 4 + 2 NaOH → 2 NaH 4 + H 2 O   
      • 2 CO3+ NaOH → NaHC O 3 + H 2 O  
    • Basic Salts : result of partially substituting the OH  bases for non-metals:
      • HN O 3 + Cu (OH) 2 → CuOHN 3 + H 2 O
      • HN O 3 + Ca (OH) 2 → CaOH (N 3 ) 2 + H 2 O
    • Double Salts : result of replacing the H + of the acid with more than one metal:
      • 2 SO4+ KOH + Al (OH) 3 → KAlSO4+H2O
    • Halide bulbs salts ( halides ) reacting a hydrazide result with a base:
      • HCl + CuOH → CuCl + H 2 O
      • 2 S + 2Fe (OH) 3 → Fe 2 S 3 +H2O
    • Oxisal salts : result of reacting an oxacid with a base: CoOCl, PbO (NO 3 ) 2 , PbO (NO3)2
    • Hydrated Salt or Hydrate : salt with water molecules in its crystalline structure:
      • PbO · ½H 2 O, lead (III) oxide hemihydrate (or hemihydrate)
      • CaSO 4 · 2H 2 O, calcium sulfate dihydrate

Nomenclature of the salts:

Related Articles
  • : In binary salts used the termination ide NaCl : chlor uro sodium
  • In ternary salts, the -oso / -ico ending of the oxacid from which they come is replaced by -ito / -ate: Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 comes from H 3 PO 4 (phosphoric acid) → it is calcium phosphate  salts in chemistry

Important Salts Groups: salts in chemistry

  • Carbonates ( CO 2− ) → Sodium CarbonateNa 2 CO 3 , Calcium Carbonate CaCO , CuCO 3 
  • Hypochlorates ( ClO  ) → K Cl O, Ca (ClO ) 2 , NaClO …
  • Chlorate (ClO 3  ) → Sodium chlorate NaClO 3 , potassium chlorate KClO 3 , ammonium chlorate NH 4 ClO 3 .. .
  • Perchlorates ( ClO  ) → ammonium perchlorate NH 4 ClO 4 , potassium perchlorate KClO 4 …
  • Chromates ( Cr O 2- ) → K 2 CrO 4 , PbCrO 4 , Na 2 CrO 4 , Ag 2 CrO 4salts in chemistry
  • Phosphates ( PO 3− ) → Sodium PhosphateNa 3 PO 4 , Monoammonium Phosphate NH 4 H 2 PO 4 …
  • Nitrates (NO 3  ) → Sodium Nitrate NaNO 3 , Ammonium Nitrate NH 4 NO 3 , Potassium Nitrate KNO 
  • Permanganates ( MnO4 ) → KMnO 4 , NaMnO 4 , Ca (MnO 4 ) 2 , AgMn O 4 , NH 4 MnO 4 …
  • Sulfates (SO42) → CuSO 4 , Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , (CH 3 ) 2 SO 4 , FeSO 4 …
  • Sulfites (SO 3 2- ) → calcium sulfite CaSO 3 , sodium sulfite Na 2 SO 3 , lead sulfite PbSO 3 …
  • Persulfates ( SO 5 2 –)and(S2O82−)→ Na 2 S 2 O 8 ,(NH 4 ) 2 S 2 O 8 , K2S2O8
  • Oxalates (COO) 2− →Ca (COO) 2 ,(CH 3 ) 2 (COO) 2 , N a 2(COO)2salts in chemistry
  • Inorganic Compounds :
    • Hydrides :
      • Metal Hydrides : combination of metal with hydrogen ( LiH lithium hydride … )
      • Non-Metallic Hydrides : combination of non-metal with hydrogen ( NH 3 ammonia …) salts in chemistry
    • Oxides :
      • Metal Oxides : combination of metal with oxygen ( Al 2 O 3 Aluminum Oxide … )
      • Non-Metallic Oxides : combination of non-metal with oxygen ( 2 Carbon Anhydride … )
      • Peroxides : combination of metal with oxygen (-1) ( Mg 2 Magnesium Peroxide …) salts in chemistry
    • Acids :
      • Hydracids : combination of non-metal or halogen or amphibian ( HCl Hydrochloric acid …)
      • Oxacids : non-metallic oxide and a water molecule (HClO Hypochlorous Acid…)
      • Organic Acids :hydrocarbons with a carboxyl group ( CH 3 – COOH Ethanoic acid …) salts in chemistry
    • Bases :
      • Hydroxides : formed by a metal and a hydroxyl group (NaOHSodium Hydroxide …)
    • Sales :
      • Neutral Salts : all the H + of the acid are replaced by a metal ( NaCl Sodium Chloride)
      • Basic Salts : the OH  of the bases are partially replaced by non-metals ( CuOHN 3 )
      • Acid salts salts in chemistry

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