Importance of Biochemistry

What are the mechanisms of DNA repair ?

DNA repair

What are the mechanisms of DNA repair?

Researchers from the University of Toronto:

Researchers from the University of Toronto have discovered that a delicate system of strings, liquid droplet dynamics and protein connections allows repair of some of the damaged DNA in the nuclei of cells.
 These findings contradict the widespread belief that broken DNA floats aimlessly, and highlight the cross-cutting research between biologists and physicists.

DNA repair ensures:

DNA repair ensures the stability of the genome, allowing cells to perform their function and promoting the health of all living organisms, and broken pieces of double-strand DNA are highly toxic to cells, and researchers had previously assumed that they float inside the nucleus without a specific direction, until they induce cellular changes Other or subject to a correction mechanism.

Discovery of the complex process of DNA repair - damaged DNA in the nucleus of cells - genome persistence
DNA repair

This thinking began to change in 2015,when a team of researchers demonstrated the possibility of damaged DNA being transported by kinetic protein vectors to DNA-healing sites rich in specific repair agents in the nucleus, after which joint research with aviation engineers at the University of Toronto showed that the DNA is transported for repair.

If it is subjected to any double-strip breakage, it is by long highways composed of fine tubules similar to moving strings.

Monitoring fermented cells:

The researchers monitored fermented cells with multiple double-stranded breaks of DNA, and found that coordination between short types of microtubule strands and fluid-like droplets made up of DNA repair proteins allow the creation of a center for DNA repair and activation.

“The liquid droplets collaborate with the microtubules inside the nucleus to enhance the pooling of damaged DNA sites,” said Karim Mekhail, professor of laboratory medicine and pathological biology at the University of Toronto.

 Repair proteins assemble at:

Repair proteins assemble at different sites into droplets, which are fused into a larger droplet that is a repair center, with the help of short nucleotubes.

This large oil droplet then acts like a spider, unleashing a star-shaped web of filaments that connect to long highways to enable DNA to travel through them to hospitals.

Mikhail enlisted:

Mikhail enlisted the help of Nasser Ashgriz, professor of mechanical and industrial engineering at the University of Toronto, to gauge and understand the role of droplets in the repair process.

Michael Ashgrez:

Michael Ashgrez provided videos of the droplets, and the latter confirmed the contribution of fluid dynamics to that process, but the integration between the biology and physics departments was not easy. “It was very difficult to understand their work in the beginning, because of the different terminology,” says Ashgarys.

After months of discussion and experiments:

After months of discussions and experiments, the computer simulations indicated that the short threads moved like pistons, depressing the nuclear plasma, forming an absorbent effect that led to the merging of the droplets, and Michael and his team confirmed these results in the laboratory.

Ashgarys says:

“When we usually go deep into the details of a particular field, we lose sight of some of these details,” says Ashgarys. “But meeting a number of people with a different perspective promotes comprehension, and this work is a good example of that.”

Michael and his team also revealed additional important properties of repairing droplets, in cooperation with a team from the Department of Biochemistry at the University of Toronto.

Together, they subjected the droplets to several tests, and by observing their behavior, it was found that it was very similar in a petri dish and in cells alike.

Surprising results:

They obtained surprising results after several cycles of merging the droplets, which Michael described as very strange and never expected, as they noticed that the large droplets initiate an internal condensation of the elementary structures of the filaments, stimulating the creation of a kind of tangled path that allows – along with spider webs – the connection of acid. Nuclear with long highway threads.

Mikhail says:

Mikhail says that it is easy not to notice the complicated process when looking at sites of DNA damage, and this is due to the reliance on automatic imaging in this field, as most software is used to investigate what has already been observed before, and indicates that we should not rely on old monitoring methods, and that we are in Our software needs to be updated, in addition to looking into the human eye, with simulations guided when necessary.

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