Inorganic chemistry

What is meant by hydrogen bonding?

Examples of hydrogen bonding ?

What is meant by hydrogen bonding explain with examples?

Hydrogen bonding examples :

Hydrogen bonding examples are listed below.It is the type of stronger intermolecular force that occurs between permanent dipoles of the molecules in which the positive pole is always hydrogen, and the negative pole may be fluorine, oxygen or nitrogen, since these elements are very electronegative, that is, they attract more strongly the electrons of the double bond and are partially negatively charged.

characteristics of hydrogen bonds
Hydrogen bonding

Importance :

This type of intermolecular force is responsible for some interesting phenomena such as the  surface tension of water , which allows some insects to walk on it.

The molecules found on the surface of the water only make hydrogen bridges with molecules located next to or below them, which causes the liquid to contract, and creates a force on the surface molecules.

This causes the so-called surface tension, which is like a thin layer or film that surrounds the liquid.

This property is very important since the  surface tension is what controls certain surface phenomena , making possible the life of communities of microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, algae, larvae and crustaceans, since it allows their survival on the surface of the lakes .

Examples of hydrogen bonding :

For example, consider  hydrogen fluoride  (HF) molecules, a polar molecule. In the solid state, its molecules attract each other, so that the positive pole (hydrogen) of one molecule attracts the negative pole (fluorine) of another.

The  water molecules  also perform this type of intermolecular interaction with their own molecules and molecules of other substances that are dissolved in them.

H2O molecules are polar because hydrogen has a positive partial charge (δ +), and oxygen has a negative partial charge (δ-). Thus, the hydrogen of one molecule is attracted by the oxygen of another molecule.

In a liquid state, the molecules are more separated from each other, presenting a certain degree of freedom of movement, so the hydrogen bonds between their molecules are created and undone all the time.

On the other hand, in solid state, the H2O molecules are closer and form hydrogen bonds, forming hexagonal structures. These empty spaces between the molecules decrease the density of ice, as they increase its volume.

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