Basic chemistry

What is scientific inventions?



What is scientific inventions?

Scientific inventions:

Scientific inventions and the knowledge about science is necessary for everyone and in this article we discussed it clearly.


Knowledge is necessary and hardly indispensable to anyone, and a person needs knowledge to understand the nature of things around him,

For example a tree is not just wood but rather a biological structure of cells that absorb energy from the sun to flow that energy from paper to roots, and biology helps not in understanding but trees understand the lives of many of the objects and even human, it is indispensable to man the means of science ,

Especially in the modern era to be more relevant to everything that surrounds it, even the simplest things such as textiles lumbar it depends in the stages of his industry on the basics of chemistry until it comes out in its final form ,

And this article will explain the most prominent invention Scientific papers.

[1] History of the development of science:

The human race has always been curious and needs to understand why things behave in a certain way and try to relate observation to prediction,

For example since prehistoric times people have observed changes in the shape of the sky.

They tried to understand the seasonal changes in the locations of the sun, moon, and stars,and around 4000 BC scholars of Mesopotamia tried to explain their observations by indicating that the earth was at the center of the universe and that other heavenly bodies were moving around,

And humans have always been interested in the nature and origin of this universe since Distant centuries,they have taken a greater interest in geology and the extraction of materials from the Earth’s interior.

SAch as the extraction of copper and tin which led to the beginnings of the Bronze Age, and the beginnings of this were through observation and experiment in a manner similar to that used by today’s scientists, and people have noticed from distant times .

Also that some plants can be used to treat the disease until the herbal medicines that are still some of the development is used by modern pharmaceutical companies.

[2] In the eighteenth century

a lot of basic biology and chemistry were developed as part of the Enlightenment, and the nineteenth century saw some great names such as John Dalton who developed the atomic theory of matter,

Michael Faraday and James Maxwell who proposed theories of electricity and magnetism,and Charles Darwin who proposed The theory of evolution,

The last century has witnessed discoveries such as relativity and quantum mechanics, and all these contributions have radically forced scientists to reconsider their views on the way the world works, which led them to make a number of the most prominent scientific inventions.

[2] Characteristics of science

Science is characterized by being a group of continuous methodological processes, and it depends on observation and experimentation to study the things that there is a desire to examine and identify them, astronomy, geology , and biology are only a few of the many scientific fields,

And scientists try to explain scientific phenomena through specific scientific methods based mainly on recording Observations and finding ways to explain these observations to remain consistent.

And then testing those ideas and translating them into the most prominent scientific inventions to benefit people directly or indirectly, and when an incorrect hypothesis is presented new ideas are presented and tested, science is constantly challenging .

What people think is real, and there are many common characteristics among people who decide to study science and make its various experiments,

 The most important characteristics of the scientific experiment can be explained as follows:


[3] Accurate observation:

It is an important feature of scientists, and since science depends on evidence for observation, the validity of scientific theories depends on the accuracy of the observation that led to it, as it must be done carefully and with good technology.


It is another important feature, and people do not enter into the study of science unless they are interested in research in those sciences, for curiosity is what makes the scientific subject very interesting and is the motivation for conducting research.


It is very important, as the search for a topic and the results of its data may be frustrating at times after it becomes clear that the ideas on which it was based were wrong, and the logical reasoning of the scientific topic contributes to a significant reduction in errors.

The most important applications of science:

Science creates wonders every day, and what was just pure imagination yesterday is now a reality thanks to a number of the most prominent scientific inventions that are constantly taking place .

Computer science:

Computer science has been credited with organizing the management of factories and commercial institutions in addition to its various educational technical applications in schools and universities.

Medical Sciences:

Science has contributed to scientists inventing many amazing drugs, and through these drugs it was possible to control many of the deadly diseases by taking the medicine in a timely manner.


The role of science is not limited to academic aspects only, but it is thanks to him that people communicate better through radios, televisions and others.

Scientific theory:

Scientific theory is defined as a fact that has been confirmed in scientific ways about some of the phenomena that are supported through research using the scientific method,

The world may notice something that happens over and over time and begins to form a question or set of questions, and one of the questions can be:

“Why did this happen?”

And another question might be:

“Can this happen every time or is it just a coincidence?”

To answer these questions, the scientist or a group of scientists conduct an experiment to test the hypothesis,

This is described as scientific research that leads to the formulation of scientific theory at times and that leads to the discovery of the most prominent scientific inventions at other times, and despite the existence of many characteristics of scientific theories, however,

There are basic characteristics of scientific theory that can be clarified as follows:


[5] Testable:

Theories can be supported by a series of scientific research steps that are subject to experimentation, there is always the possibility that a different interpretation may one day be more correct as long as it is tested.


Theories must be repeatable, and this means that sufficient information and data must be available in the theory for scientists to test the theory correctly.

Convergence of results:

This means that when others test the theory, they get the same results, so the theory is valid as long as there is no evidence to oppose it.

The basic principles agree:

where the results of the theory should be consistent with the theories of science in general and not deviate from the basic principles of science, however there may be some differences because the new theory may provide additional evidence.

The most famous scientific theories:

Life has completely different after the development of a number of applications of modern theories, which are thanks to a huge number of scientists from Newton to Einstein and another group of scientists who contributed their experiences and research in the discovery of these theories,and here comes a number of the most important scientific theories:

[6] Tectonic plate theory:

It explains the formation and movement of Earth’s layers millions of years ago.

The theory of relativity:

The credit for clarifying that theory is due to Einstein, who destroyed the previous perception of the universe, time and space by relying on factors such as gravity and the speed of light .

The central theory of the sun:

it describes the center of the sun , the solar system whose planets revolve around the sun.

The theory of evolution:

It is concerned with clarifying the origin of life by linking the similarity of organisms from different places and continents in their anatomical and physiological characteristics.

The Big Bang Theory:

It describes the nature of the origins of the universe by listing a number of evidence that it arose out of a single mass and then exploded and expanded.

Differences between scientific hypotheses and theories:

To clarify the differences between the hypotheses and scientific theories it is worth noting that the hypothesis is basically just a guess based on the initial prediction of cause and effect, and a hypothesis can usually be supported or refuted by experiment or further observation, and the hypothesis can be refuted if it is not proven true, for example if it is not done.

Notice any difference in the feasibility of cleaning for different laundry detergents. Here the hypothesis is that the effectiveness of cleaning is not affected by the used detergents, as this is the natural result of such a context,

And scientists often design after adopting their hypotheses some models that help explain complex concepts such as the

Burkan model:

Towards it, while the strength of scientific theory emerges through repeated tests of a wide range of hypotheses, the theory is the stage that follows the hypothesis

if scientific research matters were conducted as required,and the theory is valid as long as there is no evidence to the contrary, and theories can be disproved if other new theories drop them with evidence Strong scientific.

[7] Scientific invention:

Before clarifying the most prominent scientific inventions, it should be noted that scientific invention arises primarily as a result of collecting, arranging and processing information in order to build a dynamic model that is constantly updated, and the value of this model lies in its strength as a measure of scientific achievements,

and inventors are usually very accurate and attentive to everything that happens around them in order to

They can discover the most prominent scientific inventions in a way that benefits humanity.

Hook lock system:

For example, in the 1940’s, the Swiss engineer, George de Mistral, saw small hooks on burrs clinging to his fishing cap, so he invented the hook lock system known as velcro. ,


And the invention can be a coincidence. In the late nineteenth century, a German scientist applied dyes.New in a Petri dish containing bacilli and saw that there was a stained selectively stained and killed each other, so he invented chemotherapy because of that,

Electrified Mixture of charcoal and clay:

and inventions are often completely unintended, for example Edward Atchison was seeking to discover industrial diamonds when he produced an electrified mixture of Charcoal plus hard clay .

[8] The most prominent scientific inventions:

To clarify the most prominent scientific inventions, it is worth noting that the time period between the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and the twentieth century is the most periods of history that have witnessed momentum in the abundance of many of the most prominent scientific inventions,

and ancient research centers were not in their current form that uses all means of technology, but this did not prevent.

The ancients were able to contribute to the most prominent scientific inventions, even in a limited way.

Much can be explained about the most prominent scientific inventions in the following:

[9] Telephone:

It is one of the most prominent scientific inventions, and the phone is a tool that converts sound signals into electrical impulses for transmission via wires to a different place, where another phone receives the electrical impulses and returns them to recognizable sounds, and in 1875 Alexander Graham Bell designed the first phone to transmit human voice electrically .


There are many major milestones in the history of computers since 1936 when Konrad Zeus designed the first programmable computer, which is one of the most prominent scientific inventions in the modern era.


It is one of the most important and prominent scientific inventions now, thanks to his invention to Paul Nebco, who sent pictures via wires using the technology of rotating metal disk, until the television then developed on two tracks through the development of mechanical and electronic circuits dependent on the cathode ray tube, then developed those

The mechanism was at the hands of the American Charles Jenkins and the Scottish John Baird until the TV reached its current form.

Cars:Scientific inventions

one of the most prominent scientific inventions now common among many, and in 1769 French mechanic Nicolas Joseph Cognot invented the first self-propelled road vehicle, it was a primitive model powered by steam, and in 1885,

Karl Baines designed the world’s first practical car powered by an engine Internal combustion.


Scientific inventions
Photographer with retro style camera

Joseph Nikifor Knips invented the first photograph in 1814 yet the picture required eight hours of exposure, and Louis Jacques Mandy Daguerre was the inventor of photography in 1837

Steam engine:

The idea of ​​this engine is traced back to Thomas Safri, who was an English military engineer and inventor, and that engine was one of the most prominent scientific inventions in 1698 .

Thomas Safri patented the first raw steam engine, then Thomas Newcomen invented the air steam engine in 1712 James Watt designed the invention of the first modern steam engine in 1765.

Cons of scientific inventions:

After clarifying the most prominent scientific inventions, it is worth noting that all of these scientific inventions were not without serious flaws and disadvantages in some cases,

And despite the benefits of technology in general, however, the way users benefit from those scientific inventions has the greatest role in determining the extent of benefit or harm behind the use of Some scientific inventions,

For example the frequent use of a mobile phone is very dangerous, as it causes many negative effects of the user’s eye, in addition to continuous headache and brain disorders

Sometimes, it also affects sleep disturbances and has a negative impact on the attention of the person who uses it.

In addition, it reduces the time the individual spends with his family and therefore it affects the lifestyle of individuals and families, so phones, especially in recent times, have become a tool for isolation and preoccupation with the duties of the individual

Even his rights over those around him, and besides that it is a dangerous source of misleading information that negatively affects individuals’ ideas, beliefs, and faith in the homeland.

Even common computers are now in the homes of many users, although they are among the most prominent scientific inventions, but the computer also has a lot of negatives.

For example, if the main server of the personal computer system is separated, the entire computer will end up in vain, and also if the user has A centralized connection server is idle, the entire network will reach a dead end,

And it is worth noting that the computer is contaminated with many external viruses that may cause it to malfunction greatly or may completely eliminate it and turn it into a mere iron piece of useless,

In addition to that the cost of implementing the system may be .

For some users, including cables and expensive equipment, the most notable disadvantage is that the computer now includes managing a lot of business in a way that may be reflected in the enthusiasm and effectiveness of many employees.


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