Importance of Biochemistry

What will happen if you have high uric acid levels?

High uric acid

 

What will happen if you have high uric acid levels?

High uric acid levels :

High uric acid (hyperuricemia) is an increased level of uric acid in the blood. Urine acid reaches the blood after it crosses the liver, and most of it is excreted from the body through the urine, while the rest is excreted through the intestine, and this contributes to regulating its levels in the blood. Normal uric acid levels are 2.4 – 6 mg / dL (for females), 3.4 – 7 mg / dL (for males), and these values ​​may differ slightly between one laboratory and another.

Purines are also important for regulating urine acid levels in the blood, which are compounds that contain nitrogen, and have two sources, they may be made inside the cells of the body, or come from an external source (food). Purines are metabolized to uric acid, and increased levels of purine lead to an accumulation of uric acid in the blood. High levels of uric acid in the blood above 7 mg / dl can lead to multiple disorders, such as kidney stones and gout (accumulation of uric acid crystals in the joints, especially in the toes and hands).

Causes of high uric acid levels

The causes of high uric acid levels may be primary (increased internal or external purines) or secondary (other diseases or disorders), and the body may produce more urine acid in more quantities than it excretes.

Causes of primary hyperacidity:

  •  Increased uric acid production from purines.
  •  Failure to excrete uric acid across the kidneys.

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Causes of secondary hyperuricemia:

  •  Some types of malignancies or chemotherapy may cause an increased rate of cell death. This often occurs as a result of chemotherapy, but urine acid levels may rise even without chemotherapy.
  •  The rate of cellular death often accelerates after chemotherapy, and tumor degeneration syndrome may occur, especially if the tumor is large.
  •  Kidney disease causes a decrease in its ability to excrete urine acid from the body, which causes its levels in the blood to rise.
  •  Some medicines raise urine acid levels in the blood.
  •  Metabolic and glandular diseases, especially diabetes and metabolic acidosis.
  •  High levels of uric acid may cause disturbances, and no disturbances may occur even with elevated uric acid levels. Only 20% of those with high levels of gout have urine, however some people with gout do not have high levels of urine in the blood.

Symptoms of hyperuricemia

  •  Excessive uric acid may not be symptomatic.
  •  Patients who are undergoing chemotherapy and have high levels of uric acid may have nephrotic symptoms or gouty arthritis.
  •  Cancer patients with elevated uric acid levels may experience fever, chills, fatigue, and general weakness (neoplasia).
  •  Uric acid crystals may precipitate in the joints and gouty arthritis occur.
  •  Patients with hyperuricemia may have kidney disorders or urination disorders.

Methods of dealing with high levels of uric acid in the blood

Inform the doctor and health care providers about any medications the patient takes, including vitamins, herbal remedies, and over-the-counter medicines.

The doctor should also be informed about any diseases that the patient suffers from, especially liver, heart and kidney diseases.

Patients are advised to adhere to the instructions of physicians and health care providers regarding lowering urine acid levels in the blood, and if these levels are too high, your doctor may prescribe medications to lower them to the safe limits.

Patients with elevated blood urine levels and suffering from gout or kidney disorders are advised to eat a low-purine diet.

Foods that are high in purine include:

  •  Meat (like liver), meat products, and broth.
  •  Yeasts and extracts such as beer and alcoholic beverages.
  •  Asparagus, spinach, beans, peas, lentils, oats, broccoli and mushrooms.

Foods that are low in purine include:

  •  Cereal (bread, pasta, flour, cake).
  • Milk, dairy products and eggs.
  •  Lettuce, tomato and vegetables.
  •  Soup without meat broth.
  •  Water, fruit juice and soft drinks.
  •  Peanut butter, fruits and nuts.

Patients are also advised to drink enough water per day (2-3 liters) unless the doctor recommends otherwise, while avoiding caffeine and alcohol as they may contribute to raising levels of uric acid in the blood, and the patient should also take urine-lowering medications according to the doctor’s instructions. Certain medications, such as diuretics (hydrochlorothiazide or forcedimide), niacin and lower doses of aspirin, may raise levels of uric acid in the blood. It is advised not to take these medications without medical advice, and you must also inform the specialist doctor if side effects occur after taking them.

Medications and treatments for hyperuricemia:

NSAIDs such as naproxen and ibuprofen are used to relieve pain associated with gout, and if the patient cannot take NSAIDs due to comorbid conditions such as cancer or chemotherapy, acetaminophen (paracetamol) is used for a maximum of 4 grams per day (i.e. a tablet every 6 hours, It should not exceed the recommended daily dose as this may cause liver damage).

Some medications increase the excretion of uric acid, preventing the deposition of uric acid crystals in body tissues, such as probenecid.

Xanthine Oxidase (Allopurinol) inhibitors are used to treat gout, but they may aggravate symptoms of gout if taken during an acute arthritis attack.

Allopurinol is used to treat some types of leukemia or lymphoma, to prevent complications of chemotherapy and tumor degeneration syndrome, not necessarily to prevent gout.

When to call your doctor?

Medical advice should be sought if any of the following symptoms appear:

  •  Topical arthralgia (especially in the toes or hand) with redness and swelling of the joint.
  •  Respiratory slip or chest pain.
  •  Palpitations or arrhythmias.
  •  Bleeding lasts several minutes.
  •  A rash, especially after taking a new medicine.

Also read:

Uric acid test?

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